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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Tendons

  • Of 38 patients who had received etretinate (average dose, 0.8 mg per kilogram of body weight per day; average duration, 60 months), 32 (84 percent) had radiographic evidence of extraspinal tendon and ligament calcification [1].
  • We describe a syndrome of tendon and ligament calcification, primarily in extraspinal locations, that we have observed after long-term therapy for psoriasis and disorders of keratinization with etretinate, another synthetic retinoid [1].
  • Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a common autosomal recessive degenerative disease (1/50,000 live births) characterized by a progressive-gait and limb ataxia with lack of tendon reflexes in the legs, dysarthria and pyramidal weakness of the inferior limbs [2].
  • The incidence of retinal lesions was strongly related to the presence of diabetes and, among the diabetic subjects, to insulin treatment, disease duration, plasma glucose concentration, and presence of other complications such as proteinuria, loss of deep tendon reflexes, and increased vibration-sensation threshold [3].
  • Eight elderly men and two elderly women presented with symmetrical polysynovitis of acute onset involving most of their appendicular joints and flexor digitorum tendons associated with pitting edema of the dorsum of both hands and both feet [4].

Psychiatry related information on Tendons


High impact information on Tendons

  • Role of extracellular matrix in adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to mechanical loading [7].
  • The tendon progenitors are induced at the sclerotome's edge, at the expense of skeletogenic Pax1 positive cells and in response to FGF signaling in the adjacent myotome [8].
  • Scleraxis (Scx), a bHLH transcription factor, marks this somitic tendon progenitor population at its inception, and is continuously expressed through differentiation into the mature tendons [8].
  • Extraspinal tendon and ligament calcification associated with long-term therapy with etretinate [1].
  • This mechanism is optimized by unique musculoskeletal adaptations: the digital flexor muscles have extremely short fibres and significant passive properties, whereas the tendons are very long and span several joints [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tendons


Biological context of Tendons


Anatomical context of Tendons

  • Synovial biopsy specimens from flexor tendons demonstrated edema without inflammation, suggesting that extracellular fluid volume excess in the presence of flexion and immobility during dialysis may be pathogenetically important [20].
  • These data support a model in which cis-acting elements in the first intron, and their cognate DNA-binding proteins, mediate transcription of the alpha 1(I) collagen gene in some cells, such as dermal fibroblasts, but not in tendon cells or osteoblasts [21].
  • Using mAbs specific for fibrillin, we demonstrated its widespread distribution in the connective tissue matrices of skin, lung, kidney, vasculature, cartilage, tendon, muscle, cornea, and ciliary zonule [22].
  • In this study, in situ hybridizations of Lmx1b on murine limb sections reveal strong expression in dorsal mesenchymal tissues (precursors of muscle, tendons, joints and patella) and, interestingly, also in anterior structures of the limb, explaining the anterior to posterior gradient of joint and nail dysplasia observed in NPS patients [23].
  • In chick tendon fibroblasts, but not in 3T3 cells, inversion of intronic sequences containing a previously studied 274-base-pair segment, A274, resulted in markedly reduced human growth hormone mRNA levels as determined by an RNase protection assay [24].

Associations of Tendons with chemical compounds

  • These studies suggest that a major component of tendon xanthomata is extracellular cholesterol ester which displays altered melting and molecular orientation as a result of an interaction with collagen [25].
  • Glucosylation of insoluble human tendon collagen, a protein with little or no turnover was determined by a thiobarbituric acid method in 23 subjects as a function of age and the presence or absence of diabetes [26].
  • Furthermore, the subcellular localization of the alphaPS2betaPS integrin is not dependent on any other interactions between the muscles and the tendon cells [27].
  • The role(s) of a leucine-rich repeat protein subfamily in the regulation of fibrillogenesis during tendon development were defined [28].
  • Heavy metal-stained fibrils with the same periodic and structural characteristics also have been found in both adult rat tail tendon and embryonic chicken tendon subjected to prolonged incubation in culture medium or treatment with adenosine 5'-triphosphate at pH 4 [29].

Gene context of Tendons

  • Differential expression of lumican and fibromodulin regulate collagen fibrillogenesis in developing mouse tendons [28].
  • In lumican-deficient tendons, alterations were observed early and the mature tendon was nearly normal [28].
  • Later in limb development, Eya1 and Eya2 expression is associated with cell condensations that form different sets of limb tendons [30].
  • Tnmd-deficient mice did not have changes in tendon vessel density, and mice lacking both Tnmd and ChM-I had normal retinal vascularization and neovascularization after oxygen-induced retinopathy [31].
  • Integrins modulate the Egfr signaling pathway to regulate tendon cell differentiation in the Drosophila embryo [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tendons

  • A narrow zone of block in isolated false tendon preparations was created by perfusion of the central compartment (gap) of a three-compartment tissue bath with either an isotonic sucrose solution or a solution designed to mimic the extracellular milieu in ischemic tissue [33].
  • This antiserum recognized a novel high-molecular-weight variant on immunoblots of tenascin isolated from chicken embryo fibroblast-conditioned medium, and stained tendons on frozen sections of chicken embryos [34].
  • Also electrical stimulation of the extensor muscle tendon produced concurrent records in the forearm flexor muscle, which resembled those from the stimulated muscle [35].
  • Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of lipid carrier-dependent protein glycosylation, was used in studies of procollagen synthesis, secretion, and proteolytic modification by chick cranial bones in organ culture and by chick tendon fibroblasts in tissue culture [36].
  • Using surface electromyography the reflex response of flexor carpi radialis elicited by forcibly dorsiflexing the wrist was compared with that elicited by applying vibration percutaneously to its tendon [37].


  1. Extraspinal tendon and ligament calcification associated with long-term therapy with etretinate. DiGiovanna, J.J., Helfgott, R.K., Gerber, L.H., Peck, G.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Aconitase and mitochondrial iron-sulphur protein deficiency in Friedreich ataxia. Rötig, A., de Lonlay, P., Chretien, D., Foury, F., Koenig, M., Sidi, D., Munnich, A., Rustin, P. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased incidence of retinopathy in diabetics with elevated blood pressure. A six-year follow-up study in Pima Indians. Knowler, W.C., Bennett, P.H., Ballintine, E.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema. RS3PE syndrome. McCarty, D.J., O'Duffy, J.D., Pearson, L., Hunter, J.B. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. An unusual rupture of the flexor carpi radialis tendon: a case report. Polatsch, D.B., Foster, L.G., Posner, M.A. Am J. Orthop. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Patient compliance with a rehabilitation program after flexor tendon repair in zone II of the hand. Dobbe, J.G., van Trommel, N.E., Ritt, M.J. Journal of hand therapy : official journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of extracellular matrix in adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to mechanical loading. Kjaer, M. Physiol. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. A somitic compartment of tendon progenitors. Brent, A.E., Schweitzer, R., Tabin, C.J. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Horses damp the spring in their step. Wilson, A.M., McGuigan, M.P., Su, A., van Den Bogert, A.J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Phencyclidine. Nine cases of poisoning. Liden, C.B., Lovejoy, F.H., Costello, C.E. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Hyperapobetalipoproteinaemia in two families with xanthomas and phytosterolaemia. Kwiterovich, P.O., Bachorik, P.S., Smith, H.H., McKusick, V.A., Connor, W.E., Teng, B., Sniderman, A.D. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Ascorbic acid inhibits replication and infectivity of avian RNA tumor virus. Bissell, M.J., Hatie, C., Farson, D.A., Schwarz, R.I., Soo, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Collagen browning and cross-linking are increased in chronic experimental hyperglycemia. Relevance to diabetes and aging. Monnier, V.M., Sell, D.R., Abdul-Karim, F.W., Emancipator, S.N. Diabetes (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Benign acute childhood myositis: laboratory and clinical features. Mackay, M.T., Kornberg, A.J., Shield, L.K., Dennett, X. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Kakapo, a novel cytoskeletal-associated protein is essential for the restricted localization of the neuregulin-like factor, vein, at the muscle-tendon junction site. Strumpf, D., Volk, T. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Frequency-dependent effects of amiodarone on atrioventricular nodal function and slow-channel action potentials: evidence for calcium channel-blocking activity. Nattel, S., Talajic, M., Quantz, M., DeRoode, M. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. A genetic model for a central (septum transversum) congenital diaphragmatic hernia in mice lacking Slit3. Yuan, W., Rao, Y., Babiuk, R.P., Greer, J.J., Wu, J.Y., Ornitz, D.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of procollagen mRNA levels in controlling the rate of procollagen synthesis. Rowe, L.B., Schwarz, R.I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Terminal tendon cell differentiation requires the glide/gcm complex. Soustelle, L., Jacques, C., Altenhein, B., Technau, G.M., Volk, T., Giangrande, A. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Carpal tunnel syndrome in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Jain, V.K., Cestero, R.V., Baum, J. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Cell-specific expression of alpha 1(I) collagen-hGH minigenes in transgenic mice. Liska, D.J., Reed, M.J., Sage, E.H., Bornstein, P. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Fibrillin, a new 350-kD glycoprotein, is a component of extracellular microfibrils. Sakai, L.Y., Keene, D.R., Engvall, E. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. LMX1B transactivation and expression in nail-patella syndrome. Dreyer, S.D., Morello, R., German, M.S., Zabel, B., Winterpacht, A., Lunstrum, G.P., Horton, W.A., Oberg, K.C., Lee, B. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Interactions between the promoter and first intron are involved in transcriptional control of alpha 1(I) collagen gene expression. Bornstein, P., McKay, J., Liska, D.J., Apone, S., Devarayalu, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Interaction of collagen with the lipids of tendon xanthomata. Tall, A.R., Small, D.M., Lees, R.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Glucosylation of human collagen in aging and diabetes mellitus. Schnider, S.L., Kohn, R.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Intracellular signals direct integrin localization to sites of function in embryonic muscles. Martin-Bermudo, M.D., Brown, N.H. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential expression of lumican and fibromodulin regulate collagen fibrillogenesis in developing mouse tendons. Ezura, Y., Chakravarti, S., Oldberg, A., Chervoneva, I., Birk, D.E. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Type VI collagen in extracellular, 100-nm periodic filaments and fibrils: identification by immunoelectron microscopy. Bruns, R.R., Press, W., Engvall, E., Timpl, R., Gross, J. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Mouse Eya genes are expressed during limb tendon development and encode a transcriptional activation function. Xu, P.X., Cheng, J., Epstein, J.A., Maas, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Tenomodulin is necessary for tenocyte proliferation and tendon maturation. Docheva, D., Hunziker, E.B., Fässler, R., Brandau, O. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Integrins modulate the Egfr signaling pathway to regulate tendon cell differentiation in the Drosophila embryo. Martin-Bermudo, M.D. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Electrotonically mediated delayed conduction and reentry in relation to "slow responses" in mammalian ventricular conducting tissue. Antzelevitch, C., Moe, G.K. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Novel tenascin variants with a distinctive pattern of expression in the avian embryo. Tucker, R.P., Spring, J., Baumgartner, S., Martin, D., Hagios, C., Poss, P.M., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Loss of tendon organ inhibition in Parkinson's disease. Burne, J.A., Lippold, O.C. Brain (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Impaired conversion of procollagen to collagen by fibroblasts and bone treated with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of protein glycosylation. Duksin, D., Bornstein, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  37. Observations on the genesis of the stretch reflex in Parkinson's disease. Cody, F.W., MacDermott, N., Matthews, P.B., Richardson, H.C. Brain (1986) [Pubmed]
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