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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Changes associated with tyrosine phosphorylation during short-term hypoxia in retinal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro.

The occlusion of capillary vessels results in low oxygen tension in adjacent tissues which triggers a signaling cascade that culminates in neovascularization. Using bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRCEC), we investigated the effects of short-term hypoxia on DNA synthesis, phosphotyrosine induction, changes in the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor receptor (bFGFR), protein kinase C (PKC alpha), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and SH2-containing protein (SHC). The effect of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and phosphatase inhibitors on hypoxia-induced phosphotyrosine was also studied. Capillary endothelial cells cultured in standard normoxic (pO2 = 20%) conditions were quiesced in low serum containing medium and then exposed to low oxygen tension or hypoxia (pO2 = 3%) in humidified, 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, tissue culture chambers, on a time-course of up to 24 h. DNA synthesis was potentiated by hypoxia in a time-dependent manner. This response positively correlated with the cumulative induction of phosphotyrosine and the downregulation of bFGFR (M(r) approximately 85 kDa). Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin-A, and methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate, unlike genistein, markedly blocked hypoxia-induced phosphotyrosine. Prolonged exposure of cells to phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate, also blocked hypoxia-induced phosphotyrosine. The expression of HSP70, PKC alpha, and SHC were not markedly altered by hypoxia. Taken together, these data suggest that short-term hypoxia activates endothelial cell proliferation in part via tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins and changes in the expression of the FGF receptor. Thus, endothelial cell mitogenesis and neovascularization associated with low oxygen tension may be controlled by abrogating signaling pathways mediated by protein tyrosine kinase and phosphatases.[1]


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