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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Expression and regulation of chemokines in bacterial pneumonia.

Effective host defense against bacterial invasion is characterized by the vigorous recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells which is dependent on the coordinated expression of both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this review, we present evidence indicating that both C-X-C and C-C chemokines are integral components of antibacterial host defense. Specifically, in vitro studies indicate that C-X-C chemokines [interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 ( MIP-2) and the C-C chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha ( MIP-1 alpha) augment the ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and alveolar macrophages, respectively, to phagocytose and kill Escherichia coli. In addition, the intratracheal instillation of Klebsiella pneumoniae in CD-1 mice results in time-dependent production of MIP-2 and MIP-1 alpha and the inhibition of MIP-2 bioactivity in vivo results in decreases in lung PMN influx, impaired bacterial clearance, and early mortality. Finally, the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 ( IL-10) is also expressed within the lung during the evolution of Klebsiella pneumonia, and neutralization of IL-10 in vivo results in enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production, bacterial clearance, and increases in both short- and long-term survival. In conclusion, our studies indicate that specific chemokines are important mediators of leukocyte recruitment and/or activation in bacterial pneumonia and that the expression of these chemokines is regulated by endogenously produced IL-10.[1]


  1. Expression and regulation of chemokines in bacterial pneumonia. Standiford, T.J., Kunkel, S.L., Greenberger, M.J., Laichalk, L.L., Strieter, R.M. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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