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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Factor IX antigen by radioimmunoassay. Abnormal factor IX protein in patients on warfarin therapy and with hemophilia B.

Factor IX, isolated from normal human plasma, was homogenous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate. On the latter, it migrated as a single polypeptide chain with or without reducing agents and had an apparent mol wt of 62,000. After iodination by chloramine-T, a single peak of 125I was found on gels. Immunoelectrophoresis in agarose with rabbit antifactor IX sera gave a single arc against both isolated and partially purified factor IX preparations. The rabbit antibody was specific as it failed to inhibit the activities of prothrombin or factors VII or X in normal plasma. At an additional 20-fold dilution, factor IX activity was inhibited 50%. In a double-antibody radioimmunoassay, excess rabbit anti-human factor IX precipitated 90-95% of the 125I-human factor IX. Control without specific antibody gave 6-8%. Dilutions of a pool of normal human plasma paralleled dilutions of the isolated preparation and were used for the standard curve. Of 39 plasma samples from normal donors, the mean factor IX antigen level was 93% of that of a separate normal pool. The radioimmunoassay detected the abnormal factor IX produced in patients on warfarin therapy. After Al(OH)3 adsorption of warfarin treated patient's plasma, factor IX antigen, but not activity, was present in the supernate. Samples from 28 patients on warfarin gave a mean factor IX clotting activity of 27% with a mean antigen of 69%. The antigen level from the warfarin group was significantly lower than the antigen level of the normal group (P less than 0.001). The factor IX antigen level was then assessed in 36 patients from 29 pedigrees with hemophilia B. The median antigen level was 17% of normal. The distribution of the antigen level was wide with two patients around 100% of normal; only two had levels below the limits of resolution of the radioimmunoassay as currently performed (less than 2%). Within each of the five pedigrees in which more than one affected member was tested, activity and antigen levels were the same. The degree of neutralization of the antibody's inhibition of normal plasma by patient's plasma was highly correlated. Additional evidence for the detection of abnormal protein was provided by immunodiffusion of plasmas concentrated by lyophilization. Reactions of complete identity occurred between normal, a warfarin treated and a hemophilia B subject's plasmas.[1]


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