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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A relA/ spoT homologous gene from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) controls antibiotic biosynthetic genes.

A 0.972-kilobase pair DNA fragment from Streptomyces lividans that induces the production of the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodine in S. lividans when cloned on a multicopy plasmid has led to the isolation of a 4-kilobase pair DNA fragment from Streptomyces coelicolor containing homologous sequence. Computer-assisted analysis of the DNA sequence revealed three putative open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3. ORF2 extends beyond the sequenced DNA fragment, and its deduced product shares no similarities with any other known proteins in the data bases. ORF3 is also truncated, and its 41-amino acid C-terminal product is identical to the S. coelicolor adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. The 847-amino acid ORF1 protein, with a predicted molecular mass of 94.2 kDa, strongly resembled the relA and spoT gene products from Escherichia coli and the homologs from Vibrio sp. strain S14, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus equisimilis H46A, and Mycoplasma genitalium. Unlike these proteins, the ORF1 amino acid sequence analysis revealed the presence of a putative ATP/GTP-binding domain. A mutant was generated by deleting most of the ORF1 gene that showed an actinorhodine-nonproducing phenotype, while undecylprodigiosin and the calcium-dependent antibiotic were unaffected. The mutant strain grew at a much lower rate than the wild-type strain, and spore formation was delayed. When the gene was propagated on a low copy number vector, not only was actinorhodine production restored, but actinorhodine and undecylprodigiosin production was enhanced in both the mutant and wild-type and morphological differentiation returned to wild-type characteristics. (p)ppGpp synthetase activity was not detected in purified ribosomes from the ORF1-deleted mutant, while it was restored by complementation of this strain.[1]


  1. A relA/spoT homologous gene from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) controls antibiotic biosynthetic genes. Martínez-Costa, O.H., Arias, P., Romero, N.M., Parro, V., Mellado, R.P., Malpartida, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
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