The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential distribution of alpha subunits and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins on Golgi membranes of the exocrine pancreas.

Heterotrimeric G proteins are well known to be involved in signaling via plasma membrane (PM) receptors. Recent data indicate that heterotrimeric G proteins are also present on intracellular membranes and may regulate vesicular transport along the exocytic pathway. We have used subcellular fractionation and immunocytochemical localization to investigate the distribution of G alpha and G beta gamma subunits in the rat exocrine pancreas which is highly specialized for protein secretion. We show that G alpha s, G alpha i3 and G alpha q/11 are present in Golgi fractions which are > 95% devoid of PM. Removal of residual PM by absorption on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) did not deplete G alpha subunits. G alpha s was largely restricted to TGN-enriched fractions by immunoblotting, whereas G alpha i3 and G alpha q/11 were broadly distributed across Golgi fractions. G alpha s did not colocalize with TGN38 or caveolin, suggesting that G alpha s is associated with a distinct population of membranes. G beta subunits were barely detectable in purified Golgi fractions. By immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling, G beta subunits were detected on PM but not on Golgi membranes, whereas G alpha s and G alpha i3 were readily detected on both Golgi and PM. G alpha and G beta subunits were not found on membranes of zymogen granules. These data indicate that G alpha s, G alpha q/11, and G alpha i3 associate with Golgi membranes independent of G beta subunits and have distinctive distributions within the Golgi stack. G beta subunits are thought to lock G alpha in the GDP-bound form, prevent it from activating its effector, and assist in anchoring it to the PM. Therefore the presence of free G alpha subunits on Golgi membranes has several important functional implications: it suggests that G alpha subunits associated with Golgi membranes are in the active, GTP-bound form or are bound to some other unidentified protein(s) which can substitute for G beta gamma subunits. It further implies that G alpha subunits are tethered to Golgi membranes by posttranslational modifications (e.g., palmitoylation) or by binding to another protein(s).[1]


  1. Differential distribution of alpha subunits and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins on Golgi membranes of the exocrine pancreas. Denker, S.P., McCaffery, J.M., Palade, G.E., Insel, P.A., Farquhar, M.G. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities