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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The relationship between parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia.

The author analyzes parkinsonism and hyperkinesia in psychiatric patients with tardive dyskinesia before and during treatment with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT, a dopamine antagonist), biperiden (an acetylcholine antagonist), and baclofen (a GABA agonist); and in patients with paralysis agitans and L-dopa-induced hyperkinesia. AMPT and baclofen had similar influences on oral dyskinesia, resulting in reduced frequency, unchanged or slightly reduced amplitude, and increased duration of each movement. The author concludes that: 1) reduced dopaminergic activity may be the primary pathogenetic background for tardive dyskinesia; 2) dopaminergic hypersensitivity and/or cholinergic hypofunction is necessary before hyperkinesia breaks through; and 3) the neurotoxic effects of neuroleptics may be associated with age-dependent changes in nigrostriatal regions representing oral innervation.[1]


  1. The relationship between parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Gerlach, J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1977) [Pubmed]
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