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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Contributions of individual mechanisms to fluoroquinolone resistance in 36 Escherichia coli strains isolated from humans and animals.

Twenty-eight human isolates of Escherichia coli from Argentina and Spain and eight veterinary isolates received from the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Foods in the United Kingdom required 2 to > 128 micrograms of ciprofloxacin per ml for inhibition. Fragments of gyrA and parC encompassing the quinolone resistance-determining region were amplified by PCR, and the DNA sequences of the fragments were determined. All isolates contained a mutation in gyrA of a serine at position 83 (Ser83) to an Leu, and 26 isolates also contained a mutation of Asp87 to one of four amino acids: Asn (n = 14), Tyr (n = 6), Gly (n = 5), or His (n = 1). Twenty-four isolates contained a single mutation in parC, either a Ser80 to Ile (n = 17) or Arg (n = 2) or a Glu84 to Lys (n = 3). The role of a mutation in gyrB was investigated by introducing wild-type gyrB (pBP548) into all isolates; for three transformants MICs of ciprofloxacin were reduced; however, sequencing of PCR-derived fragments containing the gyrB quinolone resistance-determining region revealed no changes. The analogous region of parE was analyzed in 34 of 36 isolates by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and sequencing; however, no amino acid substitutions were discovered. The outer membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide profiles of all isolates were compared with those of reference strains, and the concentration of ciprofloxacin accumulated (with or without 100 microM carbony cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone [CCCP] was determined. Twenty-two isolates accumulated significantly lower concentrations of ciprofloxacin than the wild-type E. coli isolate; nine isolates accumulated less then half the concentration. The addition of CCCP increased the concentration of ciprofloxacin accumulated, and in all but one isolate the percent increase was greater than that in the control strains. The data indicate that high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli involves the acquisition of mutations at multiple loci.[1]


  1. Contributions of individual mechanisms to fluoroquinolone resistance in 36 Escherichia coli strains isolated from humans and animals. Everett, M.J., Jin, Y.F., Ricci, V., Piddock, L.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
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