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Gene Review

gyrB  -  DNA gyrase, subunit B

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: Cou, ECK3691, JW5625, acrB, himB, ...
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Disease relevance of gyrB


High impact information on gyrB

  • A parA-containing plasmid localized to similar sites, i.e. close to the poles and at mid-cell, thus indicating that the plasmid co-localizes with ParM [6].
  • Thus, our data indicate that parA is a true partitioning system that mediates pairing of plasmids at mid-cell and subsequently moves them to the cell poles before cell division [6].
  • Modulation of transcription by DNA supercoiling: a deletion analysis of the Escherichia coli gyrA and gyrB promoters [7].
  • We cloned the acrB gene, which has been identified as a mutation of the gyrB gene, and found a double point mutation altering two consecutive amino acids (S759R/R760C) in the COOH-terminal region of the gyrase B subunit [8].
  • These results revealed that the acrB mutation is related to the inhibitory mechanism of acriflavine; and the acriflavine sensitivity of the mutant, at least in vitro, is caused mainly by reduction of the enzyme activity [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of gyrB


Biological context of gyrB


Anatomical context of gyrB

  • Immunofluorescence studies using an antibody against parA protein revealed that the subcellular location of parA protein is the nucleus in cultured tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, while conventional GSTs' including the parB product were primarily located in the cytoplasm [16].

Associations of gyrB with chemical compounds

  • In quinolone-susceptible cells (top+ gyr+) as well as in topA mutants and in gyrB mutants, plasmid DNA was relaxed after the addition of ciprofloxacin [17].
  • This indicates tha mutations in the gyrB gene are responsible for nalidixic acid resistance [11].
  • Novobiocin resistance-conferring mutations in S. aureus, H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae were found in gyrB, and these mutants showed little or no cross-resistance to VRT-125853 or VRT-752586 and vice versa [18].
  • In each case, a single point mutation in the gyrB gene converted Arg-133 to Gly or Ile [19].
  • In contrast, the only gyrB mutation that conferred a relatively high level of NAL resistance also determined enhanced susceptibility to quinolones with a piperazinyl substituent at C7 position of the quinolone ring (amphoteric quinolones) [20].

Other interactions of gyrB

  • At higher osmolarity most compensatory mutations, as expected, are in the gyrA and gyrB genes [21].
  • We have determined the sequence of a 1498 base-pair region in E. coli that extends from within dnaN through recF and into the gyrB gene [1].
  • The low level of transcription coming to the end of recF, and the highest activity of the gyrB promoter, as well as results obtained with several gyrB::lacZ translational fusions, support the conclusion that gyrB is predominantly expressed from its own promoter under standard growth conditions [22].
  • In this paper we describe fusions of both the gyrA and gyrB 5' sequences to the E. coli galactokinase gene [9].
  • The relative abundance of 88 proteins was measured in extracts from three strains of Escherichia coli K-12 that are isogenic except for the topA and gyrB genes [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gyrB


  1. DNA sequence and transcription of the region upstream of the E. coli gyrB gene. Adachi, T., Mizuuchi, K., Menzel, R., Gellert, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Nucleotide sequence of the Staphylococcus aureus gyrB-gyrA locus encoding the DNA gyrase A and B proteins. Margerrison, E.E., Hopewell, R., Fisher, L.M. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutants of Escherichia coli defective for replicative transposition of bacteriophage Mu. Ross, W., Shore, S.H., Howe, M.M. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Sequence analysis, purification, and study of inhibition by 4-quinolones of the DNA gyrase from Mycobacterium smegmatis. Revel-Viravau, V., Truong, Q.C., Moreau, N., Jarlier, V., Sougakoff, W. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. High-level fluoroquinolone resistance in a Salmonella typhimurium isolate due to alterations in both gyrA and gyrB genes. Heisig, P. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Mechanism of DNA segregation in prokaryotes: ParM partitioning protein of plasmid R1 co-localizes with its replicon during the cell cycle. Jensen, R.B., Gerdes, K. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Modulation of transcription by DNA supercoiling: a deletion analysis of the Escherichia coli gyrA and gyrB promoters. Menzel, R., Gellert, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. acrB mutation located at carboxyl-terminal region of gyrase B subunit reduces DNA binding of DNA gyrase. Funatsuki, K., Tanaka, R., Inagaki, S., Konno, H., Katoh, K., Nakamura, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Fusions of the Escherichia coli gyrA and gyrB control regions to the galactokinase gene are inducible by coumermycin treatment. Menzel, R., Gellert, M. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Alteration of bacterial DNA structure, gene expression, and plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance following exposure to enoxacin. Courtright, J.B., Turowski, D.A., Sonstein, S.A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Nalidixic acid-resistant mutations of the gyrB gene of Escherichia coli. Yamagishi, J., Yoshida, H., Yamayoshi, M., Nakamura, S. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression and analysis of two gyrB genes from the novobiocin producer, Streptomyces sphaeroides. Thiara, A.S., Cundliffe, E. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. gyrB mutations which confer coumarin resistance also affect DNA supercoiling and ATP hydrolysis by Escherichia coli DNA gyrase. Contreras, A., Maxwell, A. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure and function of the region of the replication origin of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. III. Nucleotide sequence of some 10,000 base pairs in the origin region. Moriya, S., Ogasawara, N., Yoshikawa, H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. DNA gyrase on the bacterial chromosome. Oxolinic acid-induced DNA cleavage in the dnaA-gyrB region. Franco, R.J., Drlica, K. J. Mol. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of the auxin-regulated parA gene in transgenic tobacco and nuclear localization of its gene products. Takahashi, Y., Hasezawa, S., Kusaba, M., Nagata, T. Planta (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of ciprofloxacin on plasmid DNA supercoiling of Escherichia coli topoisomerase I and gyrase mutants. Aleixandre, V., Herrera, G., Urios, A., Blanco, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Dual Targeting of GyrB and ParE by a Novel Aminobenzimidazole Class of Antibacterial Compounds. Grossman, T.H., Bartels, D.J., Mullin, S., Gross, C.H., Parsons, J.D., Liao, Y., Grillot, A.L., Stamos, D., Olson, E.R., Charifson, P.S., Mani, N. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. gyrB mutations in coumermycin A1-resistant Borrelia burgdorferi. Samuels, D.S., Marconi, R.T., Huang, W.M., Garon, C.F. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Quinolone action in Escherichia coli cells carrying gyrA and gyrB mutations. Herrera, G., Aleixandra, V., Urios, A., Blanco, M. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. DNA supercoiling in Escherichia coli: topA mutations can be suppressed by DNA amplifications involving the tolC locus. Dorman, C.J., Lynch, A.S., Bhriain, N.N., Higgins, C.F. Mol. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. An improved vector system for constructing transcriptional lacZ fusions: analysis of regulation of the dnaA, dnaN, recF and gyrB genes of Escherichia coli. Macián, F., Pérez-Roger, I., Armengod, M.E. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Topoisomerase mutations affect the relative abundance of many Escherichia coli proteins. Steck, T.R., Franco, R.J., Wang, J.Y., Drlica, K. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. DNA sequence of the E. coli gyrB gene: application of a new sequencing strategy. Adachi, T., Mizuuchi, M., Robinson, E.A., Appella, E., O'Dea, M.H., Gellert, M., Mizuuchi, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli strains on the basis of the gyrB gene sequence. Fukushima, M., Kakinuma, K., Kawaguchi, R. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular characterization of PcpA: a novel choline-binding protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Sánchez-Beato, A.R., López, R., García, J.L. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
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