The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

mu-Opioid receptors modulate NMDA receptor-mediated responses in nucleus accumbens neurons.

The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) may play a major role in opiate dependence, and central NMDA receptors are reported to influence opiate tolerance and dependence. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the selective mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) on membrane properties of rat NAcc neurons and on events mediated by NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors, using intracellular recording in a brain slice preparation. Most NAcc neurons showed a marked inward rectification (correlated with Cs+- and Ba2+-sensitive inward relaxations) when hyperpolarized, as well as a slowly depolarizing ramp with positive current pulses. Superfusion of DAMGO did not alter membrane potential, input resistance, or the inward relaxations. In the presence of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) used to block non-NMDA glutamate receptors and bicuculline to block GABAA receptors, EPSPs evoked by local stimulation displayed characteristics of an NMDA component: (1) long duration, (2) voltage sensitivity, and (3) blockade by the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-APV). DAMGO (0.1-1 muM) significantly decreased both NMDA- and non-NMDA-EPSP amplitudes with reversal of this effect by naloxone and the mu-selective antagonist [Cys2-Tyr3-Orn5-Pen7]-somatostatinamide (CTOP). To assess a postsynaptic action of DAMGO, we superfused slices with tetrodotoxin and evoked inward currents by local application of glutamate agonists. Surprisingly, 0.1-1 microM DAMGO markedly enhanced the NMDA currents (with reversal by CTOP) but reduced the non-NMDA currents. At higher concentrations (5 microM), DAMGO reduced NMDA currents, but this effect was enhanced, not blocked, by CTOP. These results indicate a complex DAMGO modulation of the NMDA component of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in NAcc: mu receptor activation decreases NMDA-EPSP amplitudes presynaptically yet increases NMDA currents postsynaptically. These new data may provide a cellular mechanism for the previously reported role of NMDA receptors in opiate tolerance and dependence.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities