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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human adherent blood mononuclear cells is inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine.

The release of chemokines such as macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha ( MIP-1 alpha) from activated macrophages is a crucial step in cell recruitment necessary for establishing local inflammatory responses. To ascertain the importance of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway in LPS- induced MIP-1 alpha release, we stimulated human adherent PBMC with LPS in the presence of the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). L-NMMA decreased LPS- induced MIP-1 alpha protein release (45.5% inhibition) and steady state levels of mRNA (48% inhibition) in adherent PBMC. The concentration of L-NMMA for inhibition of MIP-1 alpha release was dependent on the concentration of L-arginine in the cell culture medium, emphasizing the L-arginine-related action of the drug. Most of the MIP-1 alpha release was attributed to the activity of IL-1 and TNF, since coincubation of LPS- stimulated PBMC with IL-1R antagonist and TNF- binding protein abrogated LPS- induced MIP-1 alpha release (by 76.8%). Analysis of cytokine secretion revealed that, in addition to MIP-1 alpha, L-NMMA inhibited the release of mature IL-1 beta (by 70%) and TNF-alpha (by 53%). In contrast, release of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 was unaffected; IL-10 was augmented (123.4%) by L-NMMA. In the presence of exogenous NO provided by NO donors, LPS- induced MIP-1 alpha release was enhanced. We concluded that endogenous NO acts as a mediator of inflammation. Since IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, these data also suggest that L-NMMA acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by specifically altering the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines released from LPS-stimulated human PBMC.[1]


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