The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Spatiotemporal distribution of SPARC/osteonectin in developing and mature chicken retina.

Expression of SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, Rich in Cysteine), a counteradhesive, calcium-binding extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein, is associated with several morphogenetic events during early development. In this study, changes in the spatiotemporal distribution of SPARC transcripts and the protein during chicken retinal development were documented by in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. SPARC transcripts were first detected within the proliferating neural ectoderm at embryonic day 4. 5 (E4.5), followed short thereafter (E5) by appearance of SPARC. SPARC was enriched within the inner plexiform layer (IPL) by E10 and within the outer plexiform layer (OPL) by E14, several days after these layers became morphologically distinct. Significant levels of SPARC transcripts were first observed within the ganglion cell layer (GCL) at E17 prior to accumulation of SPARC within the nerve fiber layer, seen first at E20. SPARC protein was first detected within the developing retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at E10 and increased significantly at RPE cells ceased to proliferate and continued differentiating. Of special note was the restriction of SPARC to the basal-half of the RPE cells. SPARC transcripts were similarly distributed in the adult retina, but at lower levels than in the period just prior to hatching. In the adult retina SPARC was retained in the nerve fiber layer and present in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL), but lost from the IPL and OPL. These changes in expression pattern with time indicate that SPARC is developmentally regulated and therefore may have important function(s) in both morphological development of the retina and functioning of the mature eye.[1]


  1. Spatiotemporal distribution of SPARC/osteonectin in developing and mature chicken retina. Kim, S.Y., Ondhia, N., Vidgen, D., Malaval, L., Ringuette, M., Kalnins, V.I. Exp. Eye Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities