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MeSH Review

Ganglion Cysts

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Disease relevance of Ganglion Cysts


Psychiatry related information on Ganglion Cysts


High impact information on Ganglion Cysts

  • The separate ganglion cell classes cross the midline at different locations along the length of the chiasm, reflecting their distinct periods of production as the chiasm develops in a caudo-rostral direction [9].
  • The formation of one such map, defined by the connection of ganglion cells in the retina to their targets in the superior colliculus of the midbrain, is thought to depend upon an interaction between complementary gradients of retinal EphA receptors and collicular ephrin-A ligands [10].
  • These findings indicate an essential role for EDNRB in the development of two neural crest-derived cell lineages, myenteric ganglion neurons and epidermal melanocytes [11].
  • Expression of pp60c-src persisted in mature neuronal cells that were postmitotic, fully differentiated, and functional. pp60c-src immunoreactivity was localized within processes and cell bodies of ganglion neurons, processes of rods and cones, and in some but not all neurons of the inner nuclear layer [12].
  • Two distinct patterns of spontaneous Ca(2+) increases occurred in developing retinal ganglion cells--global increases throughout the arborization, and local 'flashes' of activity restricted to small dendritic segments [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ganglion Cysts

  • We have previously shown that exogenous opiates affect both the release of GABA and the firing patterns of ganglion cells in the goldfish retina, and we have now begun a systematic characterization of the opioid pathways in the chicken retina, because, among vertebrate retinas, avian retinas contain the highest concentration of enkephalins [14].
  • Substance P-like immunoreactivity has been localised to the cell bodies of one population of dorsal root ganglion neurones by immunocytochemistry [15].
  • We therefore used the cAMP-indicator dye FICRhR (refs 1, 2) to investigate the effect of several neuromodulators (octopamine, dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin and proctolin) on cAMP distribution in identified neurons of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion (STG) [16].
  • We made use of electrophysiological techniques, including whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones, to demonstrate a role for GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) as signal transducers in the noradrenaline- and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels [17].
  • Using primary dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture, here we show an endogenous agonist-induced tyrosine-kinase-dependent complex of RGS12 and the calcium channel [18].

Biological context of Ganglion Cysts


Anatomical context of Ganglion Cysts

  • The number of myenteric ganglia, total neurons per ganglion, and NADPH diaphorase presumptive inhibitory neurons per ganglion are increased in the proximal and distal colon, but decreased in the distal ileum of all Enx-/- mice [24].
  • Here we show that mutant mice lacking BDNF have severe deficiencies in coordination and balance, associated with excessive degeneration in several sensory ganglia including the vestibular ganglion [25].
  • Exposing the ganglion to dibutyryl cyclic AMP or injecting cyclic AMP into the cell body enhances the synaptic action of a sensory neuron [26].
  • Morphine also inhibited potassium-stimulated synthesis of acetylcholine in ganglion cells cultured with muscle, suggesting that morphine can influence neurotransmission [27].
  • The phorbol ester TPA, an activator of protein kinase C, potentiates neurite outgrowth from ciliary ganglion neurons cultured on suboptimal laminin concentrations, but not on optimal laminin concentrations [28].

Gene context of Ganglion Cysts

  • After head involution occurs, Scr protein is also expressed in the ganglion corresponding to parasegment 2 of the ventral nervous system [29].
  • Using in vitro assays, we find that HGF cooperates with nerve growth factor (NGF) to enhance axonal outgrowth from cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons [30].
  • A role for Runx transcription factor signaling in dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron diversification [31].
  • From infancy through adulthood, TrkA and TrkB immunoreactivities were localized to both enteric ganglion cells and glia, whereas TrkC was localized exclusively to enteric ganglion cells [32].
  • Finally, purpurin supports the survival of dissociated ciliary ganglion cells, indicating that RBPs can act as ciliary neurotrophic factors [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ganglion Cysts


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  7. Critical periods of basic fibroblast growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the development of the chicken cochleovestibular ganglion in vitro. Hossain, W.A., Rutledge, A., Morest, D.K. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Morphine dependence in the rat: the appearance in the spinal cord of a dorsal root ganglion cell neurotrophic factor. Hendry, I.A., Duggan, A.W., Hall, J.G. J. Neurosci. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Architecture of the optic chiasm and the mechanisms that sculpt its development. Jeffery, G. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Topographic mapping from the retina to the midbrain is controlled by relative but not absolute levels of EphA receptor signaling. Brown, A., Yates, P.A., Burrola, P., Ortuño, D., Vaidya, A., Jessell, T.M., Pfaff, S.L., O'Leary, D.D., Lemke, G. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Targeted and natural (piebald-lethal) mutations of endothelin-B receptor gene produce megacolon associated with spotted coat color in mice. Hosoda, K., Hammer, R.E., Richardson, J.A., Baynash, A.G., Cheung, J.C., Giaid, A., Yanagisawa, M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. pp60c-src is developmentally regulated in the neural retina. Sorge, L.K., Levy, B.T., Maness, P.F. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Transmitter-evoked local calcium release stabilizes developing dendrites. Lohmann, C., Myhr, K.L., Wong, R.O. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Interactions between enkephalin and GABA in avian retina. Watt, C.B., Su, Y.Y., Lam, D.M. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Cycloheximide-sensitive synthesis of substance P by isolated dorsal root ganglia. Harmar, A., Schofield, J.G., Keen, P. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cyclic AMP signals in an intact neural circuitm. Hempel, C.M., Vincent, P., Adams, S.R., Tsien, R.Y., Selverston, A.I. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. GTP-binding proteins mediate transmitter inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels. Holz, G.G., Rane, S.G., Dunlap, K. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Tyrosine-kinase-dependent recruitment of RGS12 to the N-type calcium channel. Schiff, M.L., Siderovski, D.P., Jordan, J.D., Brothers, G., Snow, B., De Vries, L., Ortiz, D.F., Diversé-Pierluissi, M. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Long-term synaptic potentiation in the superior cervical ganglion. Brown, T.H., McAfee, D.A. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Reduction of endogenous transforming growth factors beta prevents ontogenetic neuron death. Krieglstein, K., Richter, S., Farkas, L., Schuster, N., Dünker, N., Oppenheim, R.W., Unsicker, K. Nat. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons is associated with attempted entry into the cell cycle. Gill, J.S., Windebank, A.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Decreased axonal transport of structural proteins in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Jakobsen, J., Sidenius, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Voltage-gated channels block nicotinic regulation of CREB phosphorylation and gene expression in neurons. Chang, K.T., Berg, D.K. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Enx (Hox11L1)-deficient mice develop myenteric neuronal hyperplasia and megacolon. Shirasawa, S., Yunker, A.M., Roth, K.A., Brown, G.A., Horning, S., Korsmeyer, S.J. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Mice lacking brain-derived neurotrophic factor develop with sensory deficits. Ernfors, P., Lee, K.F., Jaenisch, R. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Synaptic facilitation and behavioral sensitization in Aplysia: possible role of serotonin and cyclic AMP. Brunelli, M., Castellucci, V., Kandel, E.R. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Morphine-induced delay of normal cell death in the avian ciliary ganglion. Meriney, S.D., Gray, D.B., Pilar, G. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Protein kinase C is involved in laminin stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Bixby, J.L. Neuron (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. The expression and regulation of Sex combs reduced protein in Drosophila embryos. Riley, P.D., Carroll, S.B., Scott, M.P. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Met receptor signaling is required for sensory nerve development and HGF promotes axonal growth and survival of sensory neurons. Maina, F., Hilton, M.C., Ponzetto, C., Davies, A.M., Klein, R. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. A role for Runx transcription factor signaling in dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron diversification. Kramer, I., Sigrist, M., de Nooij, J.C., Taniuchi, I., Jessell, T.M., Arber, S. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Localization of neurotrophins and their high-affinity receptors during human enteric nervous system development. Hoehner, J.C., Wester, T., Påhlman, S., Olsen, L. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. A chick neural retina adhesion and survival molecule is a retinol-binding protein. Schubert, D., LaCorbiere, M., Esch, F. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Requirement for cholinergic synaptic transmission in the propagation of spontaneous retinal waves. Feller, M.B., Wellis, D.P., Stellwagen, D., Werblin, F.S., Shatz, C.J. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Translational regulation of somatostatin in cultured sympathetic neurons. Spiegel, K., Wong, V., Kessler, J.A. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Denervation alters the size, number, and distribution of clusters of acetylcholine receptor-like molecules on frog cardiac ganglion neurons. Sargent, P.B., Pang, D.Z. Neuron (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. Cell-specific regulation of agrin RNA splicing in the chick ciliary ganglion. Smith, M.A., O'Dowd, D.K. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Assembly of trigeminal sensory ganglia by chemokine signaling. Knaut, H., Blader, P., Strähle, U., Schier, A.F. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
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