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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor differentially regulate interleukin 1beta- and cAMP-induced nitric oxide synthase expression in rat renal mesangial cells.

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor ( bFGF) regulate mesangial cell proliferation and matrix production in vitro and in vivo and crucially participate in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis. We investigated whether PDGF-BB and bFGF influence nitric oxide (NO) production, another important effector molecule in inflammatory glomerular injury. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induction in rat glomerular mesangial cells has been described in response to two principal classes of activating signals comprising inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) or elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP). Treatment of mesangial cells with IL-1beta induces iNOS activity measured as nitrite levels in cell culture supernatants. Coincubation of mesangial cells with PDGF-BB inhibits production of nitrite by approximately 95%. This effect can be reversed by the simultaneous incubation of PDGF-BB in the presence of calphostin C, a potent and selective inhibitor of protein kinase C. In contrast, incubation of cells in the presence of bFGF potentiates IL-1beta-induced production of NO and is functionally associated with an increased rate of apoptosis of mesangial cells. Western blot analyses reveal that PDGF-BB causes a decrease in the formation of iNOS protein which is preceded by decreases in iNOS mRNA steady state levels. bFGF drastically increases iNOS protein levels as well as the corresponding iNOS mRNA steady state levels. Nuclear run-on experiments reveal that PDGF-BB decreases the IL-1beta-induced transcription rate of the iNOS gene, whereas bFGF potentiates the transcriptional activity of the iNOS gene. Northern blot analyses demonstrate that bFGF strongly potentiates the formation of IL-1beta- induced IL-1 type I receptor mRNA levels, whereas PDGF-BB has no effect. Treatment of mesangial cells with the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue N6, O-2'-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-phosphate (Bt2cAMP) markedly increases the production of nitrite. Whereas PDGF-BB does not affect cAMP-induced nitrite levels, bFGF strongly potentiates them. PDGF-BB alters neither cAMP-induced iNOS protein levels nor the corresponding iNOS mRNA steady state levels. By contrast, bFGF superinduces cAMP- stimulated iNOS protein and iNOS mRNA levels. These changes by bFGF are due to an increase in cAMP- induced transcriptional activity of the iNOS gene which is not affected by PDGF-BB. In summary, the results show that PDGF and bFGF differentially regulate iNOS expression in mesangial cells in a stimulus-specific way. The timely sequence of expression of PDGF and bFGF and of cytokines like IL-1 will crucially determine the amounts of NO produced and the functional consequences thereof in the course of progressive glomerular diseases.[1]


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