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Chemical Compound Review

nitrite     nitrite

Synonyms: Nitrit, ONO-, Nitrite Ion, Nitrite(1-), Nitrite anion, ...
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Disease relevance of nitrogen protoxide


Psychiatry related information on nitrogen protoxide

  • This high-risk practice correlated with greater numbers of male sex partners, use of nitrite inhalants, sex in commercial sex environments, perceived difficulty controlling sexual risk-taking, and negative emotional reactions following UAI [6].
  • Inflammatory mediators, nitrate/nitrite, ammonia, aa profiles and a battery of neuropsychological tests were measured [7].
  • We measured the concentration of nitrite and nitrate, indicative of NO production, in the basal forebrain (BF) of rats during sleep deprivation (SD), and found the level increased by 100 +/- 51% [8].
  • The detection limit was around 1 microM NO2-, and the 90% response time was 0.5 to 3 min [9].
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. pylori infection on gastric motor activity in relation to the level of NO and nitrite in the stomach in humans [10].

High impact information on nitrogen protoxide

  • Inhaled nitrite elicited a rapid and sustained reduction ( approximately 65%) in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, with a magnitude approaching that of the effects of 20 p.p.m. NO gas inhalation [11].
  • The blood anion nitrite contributes to hypoxic vasodilation through a heme-based, nitric oxide (NO)-generating reaction with deoxyhemoglobin and potentially other heme proteins [11].
  • To test this, we delivered inhaled sodium nitrite by aerosol to newborn lambs with hypoxic and normoxic pulmonary hypertension [11].
  • Vasodilation of rat aortic rings and formation of both NO gas and NO-modified hemoglobin resulted from the nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin and deoxygenated erythrocytes [3].
  • Nitrite infusions of 36 and 0.36 micromol/min into the forearm brachial artery resulted in supra- and near-physiologic intravascular nitrite concentrations, respectively, and increased forearm blood flow before and during exercise, with or without NO synthase inhibition [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of nitrogen protoxide


Biological context of nitrogen protoxide

  • Cytochrome c nitrite reductase is a functional dimer, with 10 close-packed haem groups of type c and an unusual lysine-coordinated high-spin haem at the active site [17].
  • The enzyme cytochrome c nitrite reductase catalyses the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia as one of the key steps in the biological nitrogen cycle, where it participates in the anaerobic energy metabolism of dissimilatory nitrate ammonification [17].
  • Inhibitors of glycolysis and of the soluble adenosine triphosphate-dependent proteolytic pathway decreased the protein degradation induced by nitrite, whereas inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis had no effect [18].
  • Activated M phi also secreted a substance that bleached Fd, a reaction carried out by NO. and NO2, but not NO2-. Macrophage bleaching of Fd correlated directly with time, cell number, and concomitant NO2-/NO3- production, required L-arginine, and was independent of reactive oxygen intermediates [19].
  • On day 12 of gestation, when resorption was clearly visible, resorbing embryos showed more than a fivefold increase in both basal- and LPS-induced nitrite and nitrate production compared to nonresorbing embryos in both mouse strains tested, indicating that the decidual mononuclear cells were primed [20].

Anatomical context of nitrogen protoxide


Associations of nitrogen protoxide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of nitrogen protoxide


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nitrogen protoxide

  • The stable products of the L-arginine pathway, NO2- and NO3-, were incapable of causing cytostasis under coculture conditions [34].
  • Treatment of mesangial cells with IL-1beta induces iNOS activity measured as nitrite levels in cell culture supernatants [32].
  • Consistent with hypoxia-dependent nitrite bioactivation, nitrite was reduced to NO, S-nitrosothiols, N-nitros-amines, and iron-nitrosylated heme proteins within 1-30 minutes of reperfusion [35].
  • Ex vivo perfusion of the HNK but not the control kidney (e.g., unobstructed contralateral kidney, CLK), led to a time-dependent release of nitrite (NO2-), a breakdown product of NO [36].
  • Release of NO by ventricular myocytes following exposure to activated macrophage medium was detected as an increase in cGMP content in a reporter-cell (RFL-6) bioassay and also as increased nitrite content in myocyte-conditioned medium [37].


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  15. Prominent roles of the NorR and Fur regulators in the Escherichia coli transcriptional response to reactive nitrogen species. Mukhopadhyay, P., Zheng, M., Bedzyk, L.A., LaRossa, R.A., Storz, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. A switch in heme axial ligation prepares Paracoccus pantotrophus cytochrome cd1 for catalysis. Allen, J.W., Watmough, N.J., Ferguson, S.J. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Structure of cytochrome c nitrite reductase. Einsle, O., Messerschmidt, A., Stach, P., Bourenkov, G.P., Bartunik, H.D., Huber, R., Kroneck, P.M. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
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  19. Activated murine macrophages secrete a metabolite of arginine with the bioactivity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the chemical reactivity of nitric oxide. Stuehr, D.J., Gross, S.S., Sakuma, I., Levi, R., Nathan, C.F. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Early embryo loss is associated with local production of nitric oxide by decidual mononuclear cells. Haddad, E.K., Duclos, A.J., Baines, M.G. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Macrophage cytotoxicity: role for L-arginine deiminase and imino nitrogen oxidation to nitrite. Hibbs, J.B., Taintor, R.R., Vavrin, Z. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Nitrite promotes lymphoma incidence in rats. Newberne, P.M. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Dipstick urinalysis screening of asymptomatic adults for urinary tract disorders. II. Bacteriuria. Pels, R.J., Bor, D.H., Woolhandler, S., Himmelstein, D.U., Lawrence, R.S. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent formation of nitrite and nitrate in murine fibroblasts. Werner-Felmayer, G., Werner, E.R., Fuchs, D., Hausen, A., Reibnegger, G., Wachter, H. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. The energy efficiency of formation of photons, radicals and ions during single-bubble cavitation. Didenko, Y.T., Suslick, K.S. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
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  29. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat hepatic lipocytes and the effect of nitric oxide on lipocyte contractility. Rockey, D.C., Chung, J.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. The lethal effects of cytokine-induced nitric oxide on cardiac myocytes are blocked by nitric oxide synthase antagonism or transforming growth factor beta. Pinsky, D.J., Cai, B., Yang, X., Rodriguez, C., Sciacca, R.R., Cannon, P.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression of an insulin/interleukin-1 receptor antagonist hybrid gene in insulin-producing cell lines (HIT-T15 and NIT-1) confers resistance against interleukin-1-induced nitric oxide production. Welsh, N., Bendtzen, K., Welsh, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor differentially regulate interleukin 1beta- and cAMP-induced nitric oxide synthase expression in rat renal mesangial cells. Kunz, D., Walker, G., Eberhardt, W., Messmer, U.K., Huwiler, A., Pfeilschifter, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Insulin-like growth factor I inhibits induction of nitric oxide synthase in vascular smooth muscle cells. Schini, V.B., Catovsky, S., Schray-Utz, B., Busse, R., Vanhoutte, P.M. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  37. Abnormal contractile function due to induction of nitric oxide synthesis in rat cardiac myocytes follows exposure to activated macrophage-conditioned medium. Balligand, J.L., Ungureanu, D., Kelly, R.A., Kobzik, L., Pimental, D., Michel, T., Smith, T.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
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