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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

HCC-2, a human chemokine: gene structure, expression pattern, and biological activity.

Cloning and sequencing of the upstream region of the gene of the CC chemokine HCC-1 led to the discovery of an adjacent gene coding for a CC chemokine that was named "HCC-2." The two genes are separated by 12-kbp and reside in a head-to-tail orientation on chromosome 17. At variance with the genes for HCC-1 and other human CC chemokines, which have a three-exon-two-intron structure, the HCC-2 gene consists of four exons and three introns. Expression of HCC-2 and HCC-1 as studied by Northern analysis revealed, in addition to the regular, monocistronic mRNAs, a common, bicistronic transcript. In contrast to HCC-1, which is expressed constitutively in numerous human tissues, HCC-2 is expressed only in the gut and the liver. HCC-2 shares significant sequence homology with CKbeta8 and the murine chemokines C10, CCF18/MRP-2, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1gamma, which all contain six instead of four conserved cysteines. The two additional cysteines of HCC-2 form a third disulfide bond, which anchors the COOH-terminal domain to the core of the molecule. Highly purified recombinant HCC-2 was tested on neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes and was found to exhibit marked functional similarities to macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha. It is a potent chemoattractant and inducer of enzyme release in monocytes and a moderately active attractant for eosinophils. Desensitization studies indicate that HCC-2 acts mainly via CC chemokine receptor CCR1.[1]


  1. HCC-2, a human chemokine: gene structure, expression pattern, and biological activity. Pardigol, A., Forssmann, U., Zucht, H.D., Loetscher, P., Schulz-Knappe, P., Baggiolini, M., Forssmann, W.G., Mägert, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
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