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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Localization of the functional domains of human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 and the effects of a Sorsby's fundus dystrophy mutation.

A transient COS-7 cell expression system was used to investigate the functional domain arrangement of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3), specifically to assess the contribution of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal domains of the molecule to its matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitory and extracellular matrix ( ECM) binding properties. Wild type TIMP-3 was entirely localized to the ECM in both its glycosylated (27 kDa) and unglycosylated (24 kDa) forms. A COOH-terminally truncated TIMP-3 molecule was found to be a non- ECM bound MMP inhibitor, whereas a chimeric TIMP molecule, consisting of the NH2-terminal domain of TIMP-2 fused to the COOH-terminal domain of TIMP-3, displayed ECM binding, albeit with a lower affinity than the wild type TIMP-3 molecule. Thus the functional domain arrangement of TIMP-3 is analogous to that seen in TIMP-1 and -2, namely that the NH2-terminal domain is responsible for MMP inhibition whereas the COOH-terminal domain is most important in mediating the specific functions of the molecule. A mutant TIMP-3 in which serine 181 was changed to a cysteine, found in Sorsby's fundus dystrophy, a hereditary macular degenerative disease, was also expressed in COS-7 cells. This gave rise to an additional 48-kDa species (possibly a TIMP-3 dimer) that retained its ability to inhibit MMPs and localize to the ECM. These data favor the hypothesis that the TIMP-3 mutations seen in Sorsby's fundus dystrophy contribute to disease progression by accumulation of mutant protein rather than by the loss of functional TIMP-3.[1]


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