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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and the isoprostane, 8, 12-iso-isoprostane F2alpha-III, induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Differential activation of downstream signaling pathways.

Prostaglandin receptors may be activated by their cognate ligand or by free radical catalyzed isoprostanes, products of arachidonic acid peroxidation. For example, prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) causes hypertrophy of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, via the PGF2alpha receptor (FP). However, the FP may also be activated by the isoprostane, 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-III (Kunapuli, P., Lawson, J. A., Rokach, J., and FitzGerald, G. A. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 27147-27154). Both ligands induce myocyte hypertrophy with overlapping potencies. Interestingly, the hypertrophic effects of these two agonists on cardiomyocytes are additive. Furthermore, the preference of these two agonists for activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways differs in several respects. Thus, PGF2alpha and 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-III stimulate inositol phosphate formation with EC50 values of 50 +/- 12 nM and 3.5 +/- 0.6 microM, respectively. Moreover, PGF2alpha causes a robust activation ( approximately 50-fold) of Erk2, whereas 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-III has no effect. Similarly, PGF2alpha causes translocation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and also results in a 7-fold increment in the formation of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, whereas 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-III exerts no effect on this pathway. On the other hand, both agonists are equally potent in activating JNK1 and c-Jun, whereas neither activates the p38 kinase. Both PGF2alpha and 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-III activate the p70S6 kinase (p70(S6K)), but not Akt, downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase ( PI3K). However, both wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, and rapamycin, an inhibitor of p70(S6K) activity, inhibit 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-III -induced myocyte hypertrophy, with IC50 values of 60 +/- 12 and 3 +/- 1.7 nM, respectively, whereas neither compound abrogates the PGF2alpha-mediated response. Thus, both PGF2alpha and 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-III induce myocyte hypertrophy via discrete signaling pathways. Although both agonists signal via the JNK pathway to initiate changes in c-Jun-dependent gene transcription, PGF2alpha preferentially activates the MEK-Erk2- cytosolic phospholipase A2 pathway. In contrast, the PI3K-p70(S6K) pathway appears to be essential for 8,12-iso-iPF2alpha-III-induced myocyte hypertrophy.[1]


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