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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of ketamine on the peripheral autonomic nervous system of the rat.

The effects of ketamine (2-(o-chlorophenyl) 2-methylaminocyclohexanone) (2-50 mg/kg) on the responses of the pithed rat arterial pressure, anococcygeus muscle and colon to selective stimulation of the spinal autonomic outflows were examined. Ketamine depressed the vasopressor response produced by stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic outflow in a dose-dependent manner but did not significantly affect the pressor response to intravenous noradrenaline (NA) administration. Ketamine depressed the motor responses of the anococcygeus to stimulation of the pre-ganglionic lumbar sympathetic outflow or to stimulation of post-ganglionic fibres in the sacral region in a dose-dependent manner, the response to preganglionic stimulation being relatively more sensitive to such depression. The anococcygeus response to NA was significantly potentiated with doses of ketamine of 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. Ketamine depressed the motor response of the smooth muscle of the colon to stimulation of the sacral parasympathetic outflow in a dose-dependent manner and at lower doses than were required to produce an equivalent depression of the sympathetic responses in the other tissues. A comparison was made of the effects of ketamine and cocaine on the motor responses of the anococcygeus muscle in vitro to NA, carbachol and field stimulation. Both ketamine and cocaine produced a non-specific depression of all responses at high doses whereas cocaine but not ketamine produced a large potentiation of NA and motor nerve responses at lower doses. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that ketamine might elevate blood pressure in conscious animals and man by potentiating vascular adrenergic responses.[1]


  1. Effects of ketamine on the peripheral autonomic nervous system of the rat. Clanachan, A.S., McGrath, J.C. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
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