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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Leukotriene D4-induced contraction of cat esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter circular smooth muscle.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In esophageal circular muscle, acetylcholine activates phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipases C and D and phospholipase A2, producing diacylglycerol and arachidonic acid, which cause contraction by interacting synergistically to activate protein kinase C. In a model of acute esophagitis, leukotriene D4 (LTD4) contributes to acetylcholine-induced contraction. We examined intracellular signaling in LTD4-induced contraction. METHODS: Esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) cells, isolated by enzymatic digestion, were contracted by LTD4 in the absence or presence of inhibitors. Permeabilization by saponin allowed use of G-protein antibodies and heparin. RESULTS: Esophageal contraction was inhibited by pertussis toxin, Gi3 antibodies, D609 (phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor), propranolol (phospholipase D pathway inhibitor), and chelerythrine (protein kinase C antagonist) but not W7 (calmodulin antagonist). LES contraction was unaffected by pertussis toxin. It was inhibited by Gq antibodies, U-73122 (phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C inhibitor), heparin (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate inhibitor), and W7 and reduced by D609. CONCLUSIONS: In the esophagus, LTD4 activates a protein kinase C-dependent pathway through pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi3 proteins and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase. In the LES, LTD4 activates a calmodulin-dependent pathway through pertussis toxin-insensitive Gq proteins and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. The intracellular pathways activated by LTD4 in the esophagus and the LES are similar to those activated by acetylcholine and other agonists.[1]


  1. Leukotriene D4-induced contraction of cat esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter circular smooth muscle. Kim, N., Cao, W., Song, I.S., Kim, C.Y., Sohn, U.D., Harnett, K.M., Biancani, P. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
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