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Esophageal Sphincter, Lower

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  • Injection of porcine motilin (75-370 pmol), initiated dose-dependent phase III-like motor activity in the lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, and small bowel if the vagi were intact; if the vagi were blocked, activity was initiated in the small bowel only [6].

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Biological context of Esophageal Sphincter, Lower


Anatomical context of Esophageal Sphincter, Lower


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Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Esophageal Sphincter, Lower


  1. A controlled trial of metoclopramide in symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. McCallum, R.W., Ippoliti, A.F., Cooney, C., Sturdevant, R.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Hydrogen peroxide reduces lower esophageal sphincter tone in human esophagitis. Cheng, L., Harnett, K.M., Cao, W., Liu, F., Behar, J., Fiocchi, C., Biancani, P. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Cimetidine versus antacid in scleroderma with reflux esophagitis. A randomized double-blind controlled study. Petrokubi, R.J., Jeffries, G.H. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Gastric and esophageal dysfunction after ingestion of acid. Marion, L., Sanders, B., Nayfield, S., Zfass, A.M. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Richter, J.E., Pandol, S.J., Castell, D.O., McCarthy, D.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Relationship between porcine motilin-induced migrating motor complex-like activity, vagal integrity, and endogenous motilin release in dogs. Hall, K.E., Greenberg, G.R., El-Sharkawy, T.Y., Diamant, N.E. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of nifedipine in achalasia and in patients with high-amplitude peristaltic esophageal contractions. Traube, M., Hongo, M., Magyar, L., McCallum, R.W. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Interactions of bombesin and substance P at the feline lower esophageal sphincter. Reynolds, J.C., Dukehart, M.R., Ouyang, A., Cohen, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Sympathetic control of lower esophageal sphincter function in the cat. Action of direct cervical and splanchnic nerve stimulation. Fournet, J., Snape, W.J., Cohen, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the lower esophageal sphincter in vivo: evidence for multiple sites of action. Rattan, S., Goyal, R.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Is gastrin a major determinant of basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure? A double-blind controlled study using high titer gastrin antiserum. Goyal, R.K., McGuigan, J.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Double-blind controlled trial of bethanechol and antacid versus placebo and antacid in the treatment of erosive esophagitis. Saco, L.S., Orlando, R.C., Levinson, S.L., Bozymski, E.M., Jones, J.D., Frakes, J.T. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Acute experimental esophagitis activates a second signal transduction pathway in cat smooth muscle from the lower esophageal sphincter. Sohn, U.D., Harnett, K.M., Cao, W., Rich, H., Kim, N., Behar, J., Biancani, P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Evidence refuting a role for increased abdominal pressure in the pathogenesis of the heartburn associated with pregnancy. Van Thiel, D.H., Wald, A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of pentagastrin and gastric alkalinization on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in diffuse esophageal spasm. Eckardt, V.F., Holtermüller, K.H. Digestion (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of cisapride on distal esophageal motility in humans. Corazziari, E., Bontempo, I., Anzini, F. Dig. Dis. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Gastroesophageal reflux. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy. Richter, J.E., Castell, D.O. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Mechanism of gallbladder relaxation in the cat: role of norepinephrine. Chen, Q., Lee, K., Xiao, Z., Biancani, P., Behar, J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Influence of stimulators and inhibitors of cyclic nucleotides on lower esophageal sphincter. Rattan, S., Moummi, C. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Lesser curvature gastrostomy reduces the incidence of postoperative gastroesophageal reflux. Seekri, I.K., Rescorla, F.J., Canal, D.F., Zollinger, T.W., Saywell, R., Grosfeld, J.L. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of the effect of fundoplication on the incompetent lower esophageal sphincter. Higgs, R.H., Castell, D.O., Farrell, R.L. Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of dopamine on the esophageal smooth muscle in vivo. Rattan, S., Goyal, R.K. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Leukotriene D4-induced contraction of cat esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter circular smooth muscle. Kim, N., Cao, W., Song, I.S., Kim, C.Y., Sohn, U.D., Harnett, K.M., Biancani, P. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Involvement of nitric oxide in human transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and esophageal primary peristalsis. Hirsch, D.P., Holloway, R.H., Tytgat, G.N., Boeckxstaens, G.E. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of galanin on the opossum internal anal sphincter: structure-activity relationship. Chakder, S., Rattan, S. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanism of action of pentagastrin on the lower esophageal sphincter. Zwick, R., Bowes, K.L., Daniel, E.E., Sarna, S.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Nature of the vagal inhibitory innervation to the lower esophageal sphincter. Goyal, R.K., Rattan, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Mechanism of action of metoclopramide on opossum lower esophageal sphincter muscle. Cohen, S., DiMarino, A.J. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential effect of atropine on rightward and leftward lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Richardson, B.J., Welch, R.W. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Endogenous cholecystokinin enhances postprandial gastroesophageal reflux in humans through extrasphincteric receptors. Clavé, P., González, A., Moreno, A., López, R., Farré, A., Cussó, X., D'Amato, M., Azpiroz, F., Lluís, F. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Coexistence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity within axon terminals in the canine and human lower esophageal sphincter: electron microscopy by a double immunogold labeling procedure. Tsumori, T., Ando, A., Domoto, T., Oki, M., Nakamura, T. Acta anatomica. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Neuronal NOS provides nitrergic inhibitory neurotransmitter in mouse lower esophageal sphincter. Kim, C.D., Goyal, R.K., Mashimo, H. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of bombesin on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in humans. Corazziari, E., Delle Fave, G., Pozzessere, C., Kohn, A., de Magistris, L., Anzini, F., Torsoli, A. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Regional differences in the vascular response of the canine esophagus to vasodilators. Prokopiw, I., Dinda, P.K., Beck, I.T. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Acute experimental esophagitis impairs signal transduction in cat lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle. Biancani, P., Billett, G., Hillemeier, C., Nissensohn, M., Rhim, B.Y., Szewczak, S., Behar, J. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Clinical and manometric effects of nifedipine in patients with esophageal achalasia. Bortolotti, M., Labò, G. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  37. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy effects on gastroesophageal reflux and the lower esophageal sphincter. Johnson, D.A., Hacker, J.F., Benjamin, S.B., Ciarleglio, C.A., Chobanian, S.J., Van Ness, M.M., Cattau, E.L. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  38. Integrated actions of cholecystokinin on the gastrointestinal tract: use of the cholecystokinin bioassay. Liddle, R.A. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. (1989) [Pubmed]
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