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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Probing the substrate alignment at the active site of 15-lipoxygenases by targeted substrate modification and site-directed mutagenesis. Evidence for an inverse substrate orientation.

For oxygenation of polyenoic fatty acids by 12- and 15-lipoxygenases the methyl terminus of the substrate constitutes the signal for the initial hydrogen abstraction. In contrast, for 5-lipoxygenases an inverse head to tail substrate orientation has been proposed. However, recent structure-based sequence alignments suggested a conserved uniform substrate orientation for 5S- and 15S-lipoxygenation. Oxygenation of 15S-HETE derivatives by various wild-type and mutant lipoxygenases was investigated, and the evidence proved an inverse substrate orientation: (i) Substrate affinity and Vmax of 15S-HETE oxygenation by arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenases are >1 order of magnitude lower than the corresponding data for polyenoic fatty acids. 5S,15S- and 14R, 15S-DiH(P)ETE were identified as major reaction products. (ii) Methylation of the carboxylate group of 15S-HETE augmented the reaction rate and shifted the reaction specificity strongly toward 5S-lipoxygenation. In contrast, methyl arachidonate was less effectively oxygenated than the free acid. Methylation of 15S-HETrE(8,11,14), which lacks the C5-C6 double bond, was without major impact on the oxygenation rate and on the product specificity. (iii) Introduction of a bulky glycerol moiety at the carboxylic group of 15S-HETE reversed the kinetic effects of methylation and led to a 14R-oxygenation of the substrate. (iv) When the product pattern of 15S-HETE oxygenation by the recombinant wild-type rabbit 15-lipoxygenase was compared with that formed by the Arg403Leu mutant, 5S- and 8S-lipoxygenations were augmented and 14R, 15S-DiH(P)ETE formation was impaired. (v) Phe353Leu or Ile418Ala mutation of the same enzyme, which favored 12S-HETE formation from arachidonic acid, strongly augmented 8S-lipoxygenation of 15S-HETE methyl ester. These kinetic data and the alterations in the product specificity are consistent with the concept of an inverse head to tail substrate orientation during the oxygenation of 15S-HETE methyl ester and/or of free 15S-HETE by 15-LOXs. For 5S- and 8S-lipoxygenation, 15-HETE may slide into the substrate binding pocket with its carboxy terminus approaching the doubly allylic methylenes C-7 or C-10 to the non-heme iron.[1]


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