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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is coordinately regulated by protein kinase C and the ADP-ribosylation factor nucleotide exchange factor ARNO.

ARNO is a member of a family of guanine-nucleotide exchange factors with specificity for the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases. ARNO possesses a central catalytic domain with homology to yeast Sec7p and an adjacent C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. We have previously shown that ARNO localizes to the plasma membrane in vivo and efficiently catalyzes ARF6 nucleotide exchange in vitro. In addition to a role in endocytosis, ARF6 has also been shown to regulate assembly of the actin cytoskeleton. To determine whether ARNO is an upstream regulator of ARF6 in vivo, we examined the distribution of actin in HeLa cells overexpressing ARNO. We found that, while expression of ARNO leads to disassembly of actin stress fibers, it does not result in obvious changes in cell morphology. However, treatment of ARNO transfectants with the PKC agonist phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate results in the dramatic redistribution of ARNO, ARF6, and actin into membrane protrusions resembling lamellipodia. This process requires ARF activation, as actin rearrangement does not occur in cells expressing a catalytically inactive ARNO mutant. PKC phosphorylates ARNO at a site immediately C-terminal to its PH domain. However, mutation of this site had no effect on the ability of ARNO to regulate actin rearrangement, suggesting that phosphorylation of ARNO by PKC does not positively regulate its activity. Finally, we demonstrate that an ARNO mutant lacking the C-terminal PH domain no longer mediates cytoskeletal reorganization, indicating a role for this domain in appropriate membrane localization. Taken together, these data suggest that ARNO represents an important link between cell surface receptors, ARF6, and the actin cytoskeleton.[1]


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