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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular genetics of the complement C3 convertases in lower vertebrates.

Evolution of the two gene families of the complement system involved in the formation of the C3 convertases, B/C2 and C3/C4/C5, was studied at the cDNA level in lower vertebrates. Cyclostomes, the most primitive extant vertebrates, seem to possess only one member each of these families, indicating that gene duplication between B and C2 or among C3, C4 and C5 occurred in the lineage of jawed vertebrates. Typical C3 and C4 cDNAs were identified in both amphibian (Xenopus) and teleost (medaka fish), locating the C3/C4 gene duplication before the divergence of ray-finned fish and lobe-finned fish. On the other hand, typical B cDNA was identified in Xenopus, whereas teleost counterparts from three species all showed intermediate character between B and C2, suggesting the possibility that the B/C2 gene duplication occurred in the tetrapod lineage. Genetic linkage between these two family genes within the MHC was observed in Xenopus but not in medaka fish.[1]


  1. Molecular genetics of the complement C3 convertases in lower vertebrates. Nonaka, M., Kuroda, N., Naruse, K., Shima, A. Immunol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
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