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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential induction of rat hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase and rGSTA2 by diazines: the role of cytochrome P450 2E1-mediated metabolic activation.

Previous studies have shown that pyridazine (PD) and pyrazine (PZ) are efficacious in inducing microsomal epoxide hydrolase ( mEH) in the liver with elevation of the mRNA level. The present study was designed to investigate the expression of mEH and rGSTA2 genes in response to the diazines including PD, PZ and pyrimidine (PM) and the basis for their enzyme induction. Rats treated with either PD or PZ for 3 days resulted in marked increases in mEH and rGSTA2 mRNA levels with concomitant induction of the proteins, whereas PM failed to elevate the mRNA levels. Treatment of rats with a single dose of PD or PZ showed dose-dependent increases in mEH and rGSTA2 mRNA levels at 24 h with ED50 values being approximately 10 mg/kg. Time-course studies showed that the mRNA levels were increased to maximal extents at 24-48 h after treatment. Studies were extended to assess the mechanistic basis for the enzyme induction by PD and PZ. beta-Naphthoflavone (BNF) caused a 6-fold increase of rGSTA2 mRNA in the liver (100 mg/kg per day, p.o., 3 days), as compared to control, whereas the agent failed to increase mEH mRNA level. Administration of PD or PZ (50 mg/kg) to BNF-pretreated rats resulted in no enhanced increase of the mEH mRNA as compared to the individual treatment, while the rGSTA2 mRNA level was additively elevated, suggesting the possibility that increases of the mEH and rGSTA2 mRNAs by PD or PZ might be mediated with antioxidant responsive element(s) in the genes, but not with xenobiotic responsive element. Western blot analysis revealed that cytochrome P450 2E1 was induced 3- to 4-fold by both PD and PZ, whereas PM failed to induce P450 2E1. Concomitant treatment of rats with PD or PZ in combination with acetone, a substrate for P450 2E1, caused no significant increase in the mEH and rGSTA2 mRNA levels relative to that in untreated animals, whereas PD or PZ treatment without a concomitant acetone administration resulted in marked increases of the mRNAs. Diazine-inducible mEH and rGSTA2 mRNA levels were approximately 2-fold enhanced in P450 2E1-induced starved rats, as compared to those in diazine-treated unstarved animals. These data indicate that P450 2E1-mediated bioactivation of the diazines might contribute to transcriptional activation of the mEH and GST genes. These results provide evidence that both PD and PZ efficaciously induce mEH and rGSTA2 in the liver with increases in the mRNA levels, while PM is ineffective, and that induction of mEH and rGSTA2 may be mediated through bioactivation of the diazines by P450 2E1.[1]


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