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Chemical Compound Review

propyl gallate     propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate

Synonyms: Nipagallin P, Progallin P, Nipanox S 1, Tenox PG, CHEMBL7983, ...
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Disease relevance of propyl gallate

  • Histological examination revealed significantly increased incidences of hyperplasia in the groups given BHA together with SA or PG at the prefundic region or at the mid region respectively [1].

High impact information on propyl gallate

  • In this assay this activity is sensitive to n-propyl-gallate, an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase [2].
  • Neuronal apoptosis was suppressed by pre-treatment with the antioxidants, propyl gallate (PG) and N-t-butyl-phenylnitrone (BPN), or overexpression of human Bcl-2 [3].
  • Exposure to NAC fibrils increased also the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and enhanced its DNA-binding activity, which was inhibited by PG and BPN more efficiently in neurons than in astrocytes [3].
  • At a concentration of 0.2-2.0 g/liter and 6 g/liter, respectively, PPD and NPG were shown to effectively retard fluorescence fading without notably decreasing the initial emission intensity; two requisites were that the modified PVA used must be rather fresh and that the mounted preparations be examined within a few days [4].
  • The results allow the establishment of a decreasing order of antioxidant power: PG > PHC > PC >> alpha-TOH > PI > PF [5].

Biological context of propyl gallate

  • The absolute oral bioavailability of PG (administered as an HPB complex) in rats was low (5%) suggesting extensive metabolism or incomplete absorption [6].
  • Moreover, both frameshift (TA98) and base substitution (TA100) bacteria indicator strains demonstrate an enhanced mutagenesis to 4NQO in the presence of the propyl-gallate [7].
  • On the other hand, compared when they were formulated alone, the increase of PG and the diminution of BHA degradation kinetics were observed [8].

Anatomical context of propyl gallate

  • Other antioxidants that produced lower but significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of oocyte maturation included propyl gallate (PG; GVBD = 70.3%), 2,4,5-trihydroxybutrophenone (THBP; GVBD = 71.4%), and lauryl gallate (LG; GVBD = 71.4%) [9].


  1. Enhancement of BHA-induced proliferative rat forestomach lesion development by simultaneous treatment with other antioxidants. Hirose, M., Masuda, A., Tsuda, H., Uwagawa, S., Ito, N. Carcinogenesis (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. A plastid terminal oxidase associated with carotenoid desaturation during chromoplast differentiation. Josse, E.M., Simkin, A.J., Gaffé, J., Labouré, A.M., Kuntz, M., Carol, P. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of NF-kappaB by non-Abeta component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid. Tanaka, S., Takehashi, M., Matoh, N., Iida, S., Suzuki, T., Futaki, S., Hamada, H., Masliah, E., Sugiura, Y., Ueda, K. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Retardation of immunofluorescence fading during microscopy. Valnes, K., Brandtzaeg, P. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of phenolic propyl esters on the oxidative stability of refined sunflower oil. Silva, F.A., Borges, F., Ferreira, M.A. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Influence of dosing vehicles on the preclinical pharmacokinetics of phenolic antioxidants. Vora, J., Wu, Z., Montague, M., Penn, M., Erow, K. Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhancing and inhibiting effects of propyl gallate on carcinogen-induced mutagenesis. Rosin, M.P., Stich, H.F. Journal of environmental pathology and toxicology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Stability of some phenolic antioxidants in fatty preparations. Irache, J.M., Diaz-Garcia, J.M., Vega, F.A. Pharmaceutica acta Helvetiae. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Antioxidants reversibly inhibit the spontaneous resumption of meiosis. Takami, M., Preston, S.L., Toyloy, V.A., Behrman, H.R. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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