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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Incidence

  • Remarkably, this same residue is mutated in the basal epidermal K14 in three incidences of another skin disease, epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) [1].
  • The incidence of endoscopically determined gastroduodenal ulcers in placebo-treated patients was 4 (4%) of 99, and the incidences across all dosages of celecoxib were not significantly different (P>.40): 9 (6%) of 148 with 100 mg twice per day, 6 (4%) of 145 with 200 mg twice per day, and 8 (6%) of 130 with 400 mg twice per day [2].
  • None of the incidences or numbers of these lesions were significantly different in any of the other saccharin-treated groups when compared to the group treated with BBN alone except for the incidences of two types of hyperplasias in the female rats dosed with 10,000 ppm saccharin [3].
  • The incidences of pancreatic islet cell adenoma and skin tumors were significantly different between control and some retinoid-treated groups [4].
  • Two unexpected observations were made: 1) Control mice autopsied at 12 months of age or older showed a 70% incidence of hepatomas, whereas the incidences were approximately 11, 17, and 46% in mice fed 83, 41, and 21 mg RA/kg diet, respectively [5].

Psychiatry related information on Incidence

  • During an 18-month period between clinical interviews, higher incidences of major depression and hypomania characterized the low MAO/aociated with affective psychopathology in the original retrospective study [6].
  • The incidences of mortality were 4% in the ciprofloxacin group and 2% in the triple therapy group [7].
  • Selection of adverse event coding terms probably contributed to the high rate of adverse effects termed 'infection.' Higher incidences of adverse effects, particularly behavioral effects, were found among epilepsy patients than in elderly patients with cognitive disorders or patients with anxiety disorders given lower doses [8].
  • These pituitary proliferations were histologically similar to those that occur spontaneously, and the incidences observed were comparable to those that could occur in rats on 2-yr or lifetime studies, indicating that the injection of calcitonin had decreased the latency period [9].
  • REM sleep parameters (the amount of REM sleep against the total sleep time, newly designated indices-tonic inhibition index (TII) and phasic inhibition index--, and the incidences of gross movements, phasic chin muscle activity (PCMA), and bursts of rapid eye movements) in the six jittery infants were compared with those in age-matched controls [10].

High impact information on Incidence

  • In order to find clues to the mechanisms of malformation and abortion, we compared the incidences of radiation-induced malformations and abortions in p53 null (p53-/-) and wild-type (p53+/+) mice [11].
  • Three incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning occurred owing to defective heating systems [12].
  • The results demonstrate that mice homozygous (+/+) or heterozygous (+/-) for the wild-type IL-6 allele yield the expected incidences of plasma cell tumors [13].
  • To explore the heterogeneity of mutations and to assess whether a correlation exists between disease severity and the extent to which a mutation interferes with keratin network formation, we determined the genetic bases of four severe incidences of EH and one unusually mild case [14].
  • When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred, depending on the time interval for hormone replacement [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Incidence


Biological context of Incidence

  • Here we report, for the first time in the literature, the high incidences of p16 and p15 alterations in MM, not by homozygous deletions or mutations, but solely by hypermethylation of the 5' CpG islands, which may be a specific mechanism in this disease [21].
  • The incidences of tongue lesions (neoplasms and preneoplasms), polyamine levels in the tongue tissue, and cell proliferation activity estimated by a 5-bromodeoxyuridine-labeling index and by morphometric analysis of silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions protein were compared among the groups [22].
  • With a median cumulative doxorubicin dose of 397 mg/m(2) (range, 150 to 543 mg/m(2)), two incidences of unrelated congestive heart failure after further treatment with anthracyclines and two of asymptomatic left ventricular ejection fraction decrease were observed [23].
  • The incidence of CHR was higher with IFN-alpha plus daily ara-C compared with IFN-alpha plus intermittent ara-C and IFN-alpha alone (no ara-C) (92% v 84% v 80%, P = .01), as were the incidences of cytogenetic response (74% v 73% v 58%; P = .003) and major cytogenetic response (50% v 38% v 38%; P = .06) [24].
  • Moreover, the incidences of decreased percentage diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and decreased percentage vital capacity were also significantly greater in patients with elevated SP-D levels than in those with normal levels (67% versus 43% and 36% versus 17%, respectively) [25].

Anatomical context of Incidence


Associations of Incidence with chemical compounds

  • Mammary nodule and tumor incidences were higher in steroid-treated mice than in controls; androgen resulted in higher incidences than did estrogen [30].
  • With a low dose of carcinogen, BHA in the NIH-07 diet inhibited lung tumor incidences in a dose-related manner; with a high dose of carcinogen the inhibition was apparent with 0.1-0.6% BHA [31].
  • The following fractions induced significantly greater incidences of bladder carcinoma than did cholesterol pellets only: tannin, Dowex 50 H+, residue, n-butanol, and methanol [32].
  • Results clearly showed that when leupeptin was given during the promotion step of bladder carcinogenesis (as in group B), it increased the size of tumors and the incidences of cancer and invasion [33].
  • The incidences of neoplasms and preneoplastic lesions of the tongue in animals given 5 ppm 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO; CAS: 56-57-5) in the drinking water for 16 weeks and followed by 20% betel nut in the diet for 40 weeks were significantly higher than those in animals given 4-NQO alone [34].

Gene context of Incidence

  • Severe insulitis and concomitant high diabetes incidences occurred in all genotypic classes of congenic mice carrying Thy-1/Apoa-1 linkage markers for either NOD or NON alleles at Idd-2 [35].
  • To test whether COX-2 inhibition with rofecoxib would have greater GI tolerability than nonselective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition, we compared the incidences of (1) treatment discontinuations for GI adverse events (AEs) and (2) prespecified dyspeptic-type GI AEs among patients with osteoarthritis treated with rofecoxib vs NSAIDs [36].
  • The mRNA for SSTR1 was detected in 86% of samples, whereas the incidences of mRNA for SSTR2 and SSTR5 were 14% and 64%, respectively [37].
  • The incidences of methylation of each gene were almost similar between the HNSC cell lines and primary cancer specimens, although methylation of RASSF1A was observed in cell line (26%), but not in dysplasia and primary tumor [38].
  • The former patients had higher incidences of CD7 and CD34 expression on the leukemic cells than the latter ones (50% vs 16.9%, P = 0.003 and 69.2% vs 37.9%, P = 0.019, respectively) [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Incidence


  1. The genetic basis of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis: a disorder of differentiation-specific epidermal keratin genes. Cheng, J., Syder, A.J., Yu, Q.C., Letai, A., Paller, A.S., Fuchs, E. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Anti-inflammatory and upper gastrointestinal effects of celecoxib in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Simon, L.S., Weaver, A.L., Graham, D.Y., Kivitz, A.J., Lipsky, P.E., Hubbard, R.C., Isakson, P.C., Verburg, K.M., Yu, S.S., Zhao, W.W., Geis, G.S. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Dose response of saccharin in induction of urinary bladder hyperplasias in Fischer 344 rats pretreated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Nakanishi, K., Hagiwara, A., Shibata, M., Imaida, K., Tatematsu, M., Ito, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Preventive and enhancing effects of retinoids on the development of naturally occurring tumors of skin, prostate gland, and endocrine pancreas in aged male ACI/segHapBR rats. Ohshima, M., Ward, J.M., Wenk, M.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of retinyl acetate on the incidence of mammary carcinomas and hepatomas in mice. Maiorana, A., Gullino, P.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. An 18-month followup of students biologically at risk for psychiatric problems. Haier, R.J., Buchsbaum, M.S., Murphy, D.L. Schizophrenia bulletin. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Intravenous ciprofloxacin as treatment for patients with acute suppurative cholangitis: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Sung, J.J., Lyon, D.J., Suen, R., Chung, S.C., Co, A.L., Cheng, A.F., Leung, J.W., Li, A.K. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. A systematic review of the safety profile of levetiracetam: a new antiepileptic drug. French, J., Edrich, P., Cramer, J.A. Epilepsy Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Proliferative pituitary lesions in rats treated with salmon or porcine calcitonin. Brown, W.R., Fetter, A.D., Van Ryzin, R.J., Langloss, J.M. Toxicologic pathology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Rapid-eye-movement sleep in jittery infants. Shimohira, M., Iwakawa, Y., Kohyama, J. Early Hum. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. p53-dependent apoptosis suppresses radiation-induced teratogenesis. Norimura, T., Nomoto, S., Katsuki, M., Gondo, Y., Kondo, S. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Retinal hemorrhages in subacute carbon monoxide poisoning. Exposures in homes with blocked furnace flues. Kelley, J.S., Sophocleus, G.J. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Interleukin 6 is essential for in vivo development of B lineage neoplasms. Hilbert, D.M., Kopf, M., Mock, B.A., Köhler, G., Rudikoff, S. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic mutations in the K1 and K10 genes of patients with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Correlation between location and disease severity. Syder, A.J., Yu, Q.C., Paller, A.S., Giudice, G., Pearson, R., Fuchs, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males. Hofmann, C., Oslapas, R., Nayyar, R., Paloyan, E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and NaCl on gastric carcinogenesis initiated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in F344 rats. Shirai, T., Fukushima, S., Ohshima, M., Masuda, A., Ito, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Antitumor activity of vitamin A and its derivatives. Muto, Y., Moriwaki, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of the addition of propranolol to therapy with nifedipine for unstable angina pectoris: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gottlieb, S.O., Weisfeldt, M.L., Ouyang, P., Achuff, S.C., Baughman, K.L., Traill, T.A., Brinker, J.A., Shapiro, E.P., Chandra, N.C., Mellits, E.D. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Promoting effects of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone on rat glandular stomach carcinogenesis initiated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Nishikawa, A., Furukawa, F., Lee, I.S., Kasahara, K., Tanakamaru, Z., Nakamura, H., Miyauchi, M., Kinae, N., Hirose, M. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Sex steroid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in human colorectal adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa. Meggouh, F., Lointier, P., Saez, S. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Frequent hypermethylation of p16 and p15 genes in multiple myeloma. Ng, M.H., Chung, Y.F., Lo, K.W., Wickham, N.W., Lee, J.C., Huang, D.P. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Chemoprevention of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced oral carcinogenesis in rats by flavonoids diosmin and hesperidin, each alone and in combination. Tanaka, T., Makita, H., Ohnishi, M., Mori, H., Satoh, K., Hara, A., Sumida, T., Fukutani, K., Tanaka, T., Ogawa, H. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Phase II study of sequential administration of docetaxel followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide as first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer. Khayat, D., Chollet, P., Antoine, E.C., Monfardini, S., Ambrosini, G., Benhammouda, A., Mazen, M.F., Sorio, R., Borg-Olivier, O., Riva, A., Ramazeilles, C., Azli, N. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive early chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia with daily doses of interferon alpha and low-dose cytarabine. Kantarjian, H.M., O'Brien, S., Smith, T.L., Rios, M.B., Cortes, J., Beran, M., Koller, C., Giles, F.J., Andreeff, M., Kornblau, S., Giralt, S., Keating, M.J., Talpaz, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Clinical significance of surfactant protein D as a serum marker for evaluating pulmonary fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis. Asano, Y., Ihn, H., Yamane, K., Yazawa, N., Kubo, M., Fujimoto, M., Tamaki, K. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Enhancing effect of vitamin E on murine intestinal tumorigenesis by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Toth, B., Patil, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. An immunological renal disease in transgenic mice that overexpress Fli-1, a member of the ets family of transcription factor genes. Zhang, L., Eddy, A., Teng, Y.T., Fritzler, M., Kluppel, M., Melet, F., Bernstein, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparative carcinogenicities of 1-, 2-, and 4-nitropyrene and structurally related compounds in the female CD rat. Imaida, K., Hirose, M., Tay, L., Lee, M.S., Wang, C.Y., King, C.M. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of tetragastrin on the colonic mucosa of rats during intrarectal administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Tatsuta, M., Iishi, H., Ichii, M., Noguchi, S., Yamamura, H., Taniguchi, H. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Long-term effects of neonatal steroid exposure on mammary gland development and tumorigenesis in mice. Mori, T., Bern, H.A., Mills, K.T., Young, P.N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of various levels of dietary butylated hydroxyanisole on methylazoxymethanol acetate-induced colon carcinogenesis in CF1 mice. Reddy, B.S., Maeura, Y., Weisburger, J.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification of carcinogenic tannin isolated from Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Wang, C.Y., Chiu, C.W., Pamukcu, A.M., Bryan, G.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  33. Further studies on the effect of leupeptin, a protease inhibitor, on induction of bladder tumors in rats by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Kakizoe, T., Esumi, H., Kawachi, T., Sugimura, T., Takeuchi, T., Umezawa, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  34. Carcinogenicity of betel quid. III. Enhancement of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide- and N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced carcinogenesis in rats by subsequent administration of betel nut. Tanaka, T., Kuniyasu, T., Shima, H., Sugie, S., Mori, H., Takahashi, M., Hirono, I. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Genetic control of diabetogenesis in NOD/Lt mice. Development and analysis of congenic stocks. Prochazka, M., Serreze, D.V., Worthen, S.M., Leiter, E.H. Diabetes (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Gastrointestinal tolerability of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor rofecoxib compared with nonselective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors in osteoarthritis. Watson, D.J., Harper, S.E., Zhao, P.L., Quan, H., Bolognese, J.A., Simon, T.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. High expression of somatostatin receptors and messenger ribonucleic acid for its receptor subtypes in organ-confined and locally advanced human prostate cancers. Halmos, G., Schally, A.V., Sun, B., Davis, R., Bostwick, D.G., Plonowski, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Differential methylation status of tumor-associated genes in head and neck squamous carcinoma: incidence and potential implications. Maruya, S., Issa, J.P., Weber, R.S., Rosenthal, D.I., Haviland, J.C., Lotan, R., El-Naggar, A.K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan: predominantly occurs in children less than 3 years and adults between 51 and 70 years. Huang, S.Y., Tang, J.L., Jou, S.T., Tsay, W., Hu, C.H., Lin, D.T., Lin, K.S., Lin, K.S., Wang, C.H., Chen, Y.C., Shen, M.C., Tien, H.F. Leukemia (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Polymerase chain reaction monitoring reduces the incidence of cytomegalovirus disease and the duration and side effects of antiviral therapy after bone marrow transplantation. Einsele, H., Ehninger, G., Hebart, H., Wittkowski, K.M., Schuler, U., Jahn, G., Mackes, P., Herter, M., Klingebiel, T., Löffler, J., Wagner, S., Müller, C.A. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  41. Lamivudine for the prevention of hepatitis B virus reactivation in hepatitis B s-antigen seropositive cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Yeo, W., Chan, P.K., Ho, W.M., Zee, B., Lam, K.C., Lei, K.I., Chan, A.T., Mok, T.S., Lee, J.J., Leung, T.W., Zhong, S., Johnson, P.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  42. Carcinogenicity and modification of the carcinogenic response by BHA, BHT, and other antioxidants. Ito, N., Fukushima, S., Tsuda, H. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  43. HBsAg carrier status and the association between gestational diabetes with increased serum ferritin concentration in Chinese women. Lao, T.T., Tse, K.Y., Chan, L.Y., Tam, K.F., Ho, L.F. Diabetes Care (2003) [Pubmed]
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