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Chemical Compound Review

Orsin     benzene-1,4-diamine

Synonyms: p-Aminoaniline, Fouramine D, Futramine D, Benzofur D, Fourrine 1, ...
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Disease relevance of PPD

  • The positive skin tests to PPD, candida and mumps persisted [1].
  • The prevalence of abnormalities was high: intestinal parasites, 61%; positive tuberculin test (PPD) results 55%; anemia, 37%; hepatitis B antigenemia, 14%; and abnormal VDRL test results, 12% [2].
  • A rise in similarly positive T cells occurred in normal individuals after immunization with tetanus toxoid or PPD [3].
  • The PCA response was antigen specific: peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) from donors sensitive to PPD or tularemia showed an increase in PCA only in response to the sensitizing antigen [4].
  • We hypothesized that cord blood lymphocytes (CBL) from offspring of mothers residing in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis, filariasis, and tuberculosis in Kenya would either fail to respond or generate a predominantly Th2-associated cytokine response to helminth and mycobacterial antigens (PPD) in vitro compared to maternal PBMC [5].

Psychiatry related information on PPD

  • This review considers the possible familial relationship of schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders (SPD, PPD) to schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective disorders (AD) [6].
  • The presence of PEI produced a 10-fold enhancement in the detection limit for Glu ( approximately 20nM) compared with the corresponding PEI-free configurations (Pt/GluOx/PPD), without undermining their fast response time ( approximately 2s) [7].
  • Dams were observed 30 min following injections for maternal behavior (MB) towards 8 surrogate male pups on PPD 1 and PPD 3 and for aggression towards a male or female intruder in the presence of their litter on PPD 6 and PPD 10 [8].
  • METHODS: Using a telephone survey and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaire we identified PPD in a sample of women who gave birth in HaEmek Medical Center. We also assessed the extent to which the women consulted with family physicians, gynecologists and/or pediatricians [9].
  • We studied factors contributing to an increased risk of PPD positive status among 147 inpatients dually diagnosed for mental illness and substance abuse in a large urban hospital [10].

High impact information on PPD

  • PPD-induced lymphocyte transformation was severely depressed in three and partially depressed in two of the five patients [11].
  • This line showed a specific proliferative response to PPD and to a recombinant mycobacterial heat-shock protein (HSP) of relative molecular mass 65,000 (65K) [12].
  • We proposed a scan-RNA model for genome rearrangement based on finding small RNAs that hybridized preferentially to micronuclear-specific sequences and on the properties of Twi1p, a PPD protein required for both sequence elimination and small RNA accumulation in Tetrahymena [13].
  • TKO mice responded normally to the complex antigen PPD but were proliferative nonresponders to pigeon cytochrome c 81-104 (PCC), having a large decrease in the frequency of PCC-responsive CD4+ T cells [14].
  • Functional studies revealed that, while both TCR-gamma/delta+ cell subsets showed CD3-mediated activation, only BB3+ (or Ti gamma A+) cells, but not delta TCS1+ cells, appeared to proliferate in response to PPD in PPD-reactive individuals [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of PPD

  • One month after the third supplementation dose, the response to the delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity test [multitest cell-mediated immunity (CMI) skin evaluation] for tetanus, diphtheria, and tuberculin (purified protein derivative, PPD) was the same in the vitamin A and placebo infants [16].
  • In an interlaboratory comparison of two continuous-flow analytical procedures for measuring thiocyanate, we used ferric nitrate (y) and p-phenylenediamine/pyridine (x) as colorimetric reagents to measure its concentrations in plasma of 100 consecutive patients attending a peripheral vascular disease clinic [17].
  • RESULTS: All the adjuvants were effective in inhibiting the development of allergen-induced airway eosinophilia, mucous production and, with the exception of PPD, also airway hyper-reactivity, when they were applied together with OVA/alum [18].
  • Lymphocytes from twenty-five patients with atopic dermatitis were investigated for their in vitro reactivity to stimulation with tuberculin (PPD), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) [19].
  • No major long-term impact of chemoimmunotherapy (5-FU + BCG) on the immune parameters was observed except a transient increase in PPD reactivity approximately 1 year after commencement of treatment [20].

Biological context of PPD

  • 1 of 4 clones tested was able to mediate an increase in monocyte procoagulant activity (PCA) in response to PPD [21].
  • I propose a revised model of leaf development with two cell-cycle arrest fronts progressing from the tip to the base: the known primary front, which determines arrest of general cell proliferation, followed by a secondary front that involves PPD and arrests DMC division [22].
  • The ZRS contains point mutations that segregate with polydactyly in four unrelated families with PPD and in the Hx mouse mutant [23].
  • Thus, this system of PPD-induced Ig production may provide a useful tool for understanding the human antibody production system as well as the PWM-induced response [24].
  • Although one clone from an individual with a history of BCG vaccination did react strongly with PPD, the phenotype of these cells suggests that they are not classical memory cells for a cross-reactive recall Ag [25].

Anatomical context of PPD

  • Stimulation of resting B cells to maturation by PPD tuberculin is polyclonal [26].
  • Furthermore, the number of Ig-secreting cells developing from small, resting cells without growth in cultures with or without filler thymus cells suggests polyclonal activation by PPD tuberculin to maturation only of at least one out of four small, splenic B cells [26].
  • Functional analysis of the unreactive (TH1-) and reactive (TH1+) T-cell subclasses demonstrated that TH1- cells mounted a good proliferative response to a battery of specific soluble antigens (mumps, PPD, tetanus toxoid) but neither responded in MLC, nor elaborated LMF in response to tetanus toxoid [27].
  • A comparative study of strongly positive PPD skin tests in patients with tuberculosis showed significant basophil accumulations in five of nine subjects [28].
  • CMI manifested by wattle thickness increments to PPD was not different, 3.89 +/- 0.45 mm for Bsx compared with 3.73 +/- 0.75 mm for controls [29].

Associations of PPD with other chemical compounds

  • The purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD tuberculin) stimulates approximately one of two lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated B-cell blasts of C57BL/6J nu/nu spleen cells to continued clonal growth and maturation to IgM and IgG secretion [26].
  • In contrast, 10(-4) M hydrocortisone completely inhibited LPS or PPD activation of the following functions: induced production of myeloid CSA, stimulation of latex phagocytosis and stimulation of antibody-dependent lysis of tumor targets by PU5-1.8 cell line, and stimulation of antibody-dependent lysis of RBC targets by RAW 264 cell line [30].
  • The cationic state of a p-phenylenediamine (PDA) molecule having two nitroxide radical groups was prepared and characterized using electrochemical, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic, and absorption spectroscopic methods [31].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to characterize T-cell responses to PPD and Bandrowski's base (BB), an autoxidation product of PPD, by using polyclonal and monoclonal T-lymphocyte cultures [32].
  • To test the hypothesis that lipoprotein oxidation contributes to lesion formation in apoE-deficient mice, we studied the effect of the antioxidant N,N'-diphenyl 1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) in mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.15% cholesterol [33].

Gene context of PPD

  • In addition, clusters of RA SF from a patient with active tuberculosis proliferated vigorously to PPD [34].
  • Shh, normally expressed in the ZPA posteriorly in the limb bud, is expressed in an additional ectopic site at the anterior margin in mouse models of PPD [23].
  • TRF/IL-5 mRNA is also expressed in Tbc-primed T cells upon the stimulation with PPD, whereas its expression is not effectively induced in non-primed spleen cells by stimulation with Con A or PMA plus calcium ionophore [35].
  • Fet3p is capable of oxidizing other substrates, such as p-phenylenediamine, and there is still a question of whether it is the ferroxidase activity that is essential for iron transport [36].
  • The metabolism of PPD by NAT1 in human skin and keratinocytes as well as the virtual absence of NAT2 activity may have important toxicological implications [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PPD

  • The 250-TU PPD and second-strength skin tests [38].
  • In addition, BCG-reactive T cell clones from two of three healthy PPD+ donors reacted with antigen A. This finding shows that human T cell clones may be useful for probing gene-cloned proteins of potential value for vaccination against diseases where protection is mediated exclusively by T cells [39].
  • Furthermore, purified IL-2 failed to correct PPD-induced blastogenesis in patients [40].
  • Thus, the present study elucidates the augmenting effect of PPD-reactive amplifier T cells in the induction of tumor-specific immunity and provides an effective method of immunotherapy in tumor-bearing animals [41].
  • Resident peritoneal macrophages from normal mice were activated for tumor cytotoxicity in vitro by co-cultivation with BCG1-immune spleen cells and PPD and by incubation with supernatants of PPD-stimulated BCG-immune spleen cell cultures (lymphokine supernatants) [42].


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