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Influence of dosing vehicles on the preclinical pharmacokinetics of phenolic antioxidants.

Phenolic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl gallate (PG), have demonstrated paradoxical cancer initiating and preventive actions in animals. Studies examining the disposition and biological effects of these agents have used solutions in ethanol-saline, PEG400-saline, corn oil, or DMSO. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of BHA and PG in mice following dosing in either a "control" dosing vehicle (ethanol-saline, 2:3) or a solution of an inclusion complex of each agent with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPB) in saline. Results demonstrate that BHA or PG are rapidly absorbed and eliminated in mice following i.p. or p.o. dosing in either dosing vehicle. Pharmacokinetic parameters of BHA estimated in mice correlated with those reported for other species, including humans ("Interspecies Scaling"), suggesting that exposures are proportional to body weight across species. Therefore, rodents are appropriate animal models to study these phenolic antioxidants. The oral absorption of PG was influenced by dosing vehicle in mice, suggesting the need for cautious selection of traditional nonaqueous vehicles (such as DMSO, ethanol, etc.) in the investigation of biological activities of these xenobiotics. Indeed, DMSO elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase ( ALT) and alkaline phosphatase ( ALP) concentrations following subchronic i.p. administration of various blank vehicles to mice. Such elevations in plasma concentrations of these enzymes are considered biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. The absolute oral bioavailability of PG (administered as an HPB complex) in rats was low (5%) suggesting extensive metabolism or incomplete absorption. The low oral bioavailability of these phenolic antioxidants in rodents suggests that the risk assessment of these antioxidants should include an evaluation of their metabolites as well.[1]

References

  1. Influence of dosing vehicles on the preclinical pharmacokinetics of phenolic antioxidants. Vora, J., Wu, Z., Montague, M., Penn, M., Erow, K. Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
 
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