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Chemical Compound Review

Arg-Asp     (2S)-2-[[2-amino-5- (diaminomethylideneamin...

Synonyms: AC1O52WV
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Disease relevance of Arg-Asp

  • His-64 was substituted with Gly, Val, Phe, Cys, Met, Lys, Arg, Asp, Thr, and Tyr, and all 10 mutant proteins expressed to approximately 10% of the total soluble cell protein in Escherichia coli as heme containing myoglobin [1].

High impact information on Arg-Asp

  • The carboxy-terminal portion of U1-70K-encompassing repeats of Arg/Ser, Arg/Glu, and Arg/Asp localizes to the nucleus independently of U1 RNA and was responsible for these inhibitory effects [2].
  • It is postulated that the basic defect in CF is due to the deficiency of an enzyme that cleaves the Arg-Asp peptide bond in cholecystokinin to produce the active octapeptide CCK-8, which normally stimulates exocrine secretion, especially in pancreas, gallbladder, and intestine, and potentiates the action of other gastrointestinal hormones [3].
  • Of the 12 different amino acid substitutions for Ala251 introduced at this position, five (Arg, Asp, Gln, Glu, and His) resulted in a nonphotosynthetic phenotype [4].
  • It was unable to cleave either the Arg-Asp bond in CCK 12 or the Arg-Glu and Arg-Met bonds of synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences of anglerfish prosomatostatin II situated upstream from the somatostatin-28 domain [5].
  • By relating the NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of these peptides to the sequence of the intact egg-specific protein, the protease was shown to cleave first at a Lys-Asn site and secondly at Arg-Asp [6].

Biological context of Arg-Asp

  • The amino acids in subsites P3 (Pro, Ala, Leu, or Asn), P2 (Gln, Leu, Hyp, Arg, Asp, or Val), P1' (Ile or Leu), and P4' (Gln, Thr, His, Ala, or Pro) all influence the hydrolysis rates [7].
  • The most striking structural feature of the deduced amino acid sequence is a region consisting entirely of 24 tandem repeats of an Arg-Asp (or Glu) dipeptide [8].
  • This would include piD261 in the category of protein kinases activated by phosphorylation, although it lacks the RD (Arg-Asp) motif which is typical of these enzymes [9].
  • Substitution of FVII 354Gly with amino acids other than Cys (Arg, Asp, Ser and Phe), did not produce a phenotype similar to FVII Cys354Gly [10].

Anatomical context of Arg-Asp

  • In this paper, possible changes in Lys-, Arg-, Asp- and Tyr-aminopeptidase activities in the cat brain neocortex (frontal, parietal, area 17 and areas 18 and 19 as a whole) were examined during two of the first stages of the critical developmental period (15 and 30 days postbirth) [11].

Gene context of Arg-Asp

  • In a two-hybrid screen for additional components of the pathway using the Drosophila I-kappaB protein Cactus as a bait, we isolated a novel coiled-coil protein with N-terminal Arg-Asp (RD)- like motifs that we call Cactin [12].
  • It has an RNA recognition motif and 24 copies of Arg-Asp (RD) repeats [13].
  • HM-1 contains no obvious hydrophobic N-terminal cleavable signal sequence, and no potential N-glycosylation sites, but does contain three highly conserved motifs present in U1-70K splicing factors, and contains numerous C-terminal Arg/Asp and Arg/Glu dipeptides characteristic of "RD" family members that function as regulators of mRNA splicing [14].
  • Double mutant cycle analysis revealed a range of interaction enthalpies ranging from -3.1 to -3.4 kcal/mol for the Arg-Asp pair to -0.8 kcal/mol for the Lys-Glu pair [15].
  • Whereas desnona-fragments of CCK have been described before, this is the first finding of a desoctaCCK, and it indicates that CCK-8 is released from the longer forms by endogenous cleavage of the Arg-Asp-bond [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Arg-Asp

  • Sequence alignment and structural comparison suggest that these Arg-Asp interactions are highly conserved in SF2 DEx(D/H) proteins [17].
  • The amino acid residue Val104 in subtilisin 309 has been replaced by Ala, Arg, Asp, Phe, Ser, Trp and Tyr by site-directed mutagenesis [18].
  • The enzyme was subjected to Edman degradation and the NH2-terminal 24 amino acids were sequenced by successive use of a high-sensitivity gas-phase protein sequencer and high performance liquid chromatography to be as follows: Pro-Val-Ala-Gly-Ser-Glu-Leu-Pro-Arg-Arg-Pro-Leu-Pro-Pro-Ala-Ala-Gln-Glu- Arg-Asp -Ala-Glu-Pro-Arg- [19].


  1. Discrimination between oxygen and carbon monoxide and inhibition of autooxidation by myoglobin. Site-directed mutagenesis of the distal histidine. Springer, B.A., Egeberg, K.D., Sligar, S.G., Rohlfs, R.J., Mathews, A.J., Olson, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Overexpression of the arginine-rich carboxy-terminal region of U1 snRNP 70K inhibits both splicing and nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA. Romac, J.M., Keene, J.D. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Fetal abnormalities in cystic fibrosis suggest a deficiency in proteolysis of cholecystokinin. Gosden, C.M., Gosden, J.R. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Site-directed mutations at residue 251 of the photosystem II D1 protein of Chlamydomonas that result in a nonphotosynthetic phenotype and impair D1 synthesis and accumulation. Lardans, A., Gillham, N.W., Boynton, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of an endoprotease from rat small intestinal mucosal secretory granules which generates somatostatin-28 from prosomatostatin by cleavage after a single arginine residue. Beinfeld, M.C., Bourdais, J., Kuks, P., Morel, A., Cohen, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. A unique protease responsible for selective degradation of a yolk protein in Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cleavage profile. Indrasith, L.S., Sasaki, T., Yamashita, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Sequence specificity of human skin fibroblast collagenase. Evidence for the role of collagen structure in determining the collagenase cleavage site. Fields, G.B., Van Wart, H.E., Birkedal-Hansen, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. cDNA cloning and characterization of the protein encoded by RD, a gene located in the class III region of the human major histocompatibility complex. Cheng, J., Macon, K.J., Volanakis, J.E. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure-function analysis of yeast piD261/Bud32, an atypical protein kinase essential for normal cell life. Facchin, S., Lopreiato, R., Stocchetto, S., Arrigoni, G., Cesaro, L., Marin, O., Carignani, G., Pinna, L.A. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. A patient homozygous for a Gly354Cys mutation in factor VII that results in severely impaired secretion of the molecule, but not complete deficiency. Takamiya, O., Hino, K. Br. J. Haematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Developmental changes of aminopeptidase activity in the cortex of the cat brain. Martínez-Millán, L., de Gandarias, J.M., Irazusta, J., Echevarría, E., Casis, L. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Cactin, a conserved protein that interacts with the Drosophila IkappaB protein cactus and modulates its function. Lin, P., Huang, L.H., Steward, R. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Features of the two gene pairs RD-SKI2W and DOM3Z-RP1 located between complement component genes factor B and C4 at the MHC class III region. Yang, Z., Qu, X., Yu, C.Y. Front. Biosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning and characterization of a family of cDNAs from human histiocyte macrophage cells encoding an arginine-rich basic protein related to the 70 kD U1-snRNP splicing factor. Adams, D.S., Li, Q., Tan, X., Pero, S.C., Czop, J.K. DNA Seq. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Entropy-enthalpy compensation in ionic interactions probed in a zinc finger peptide. Blasie, C.A., Berg, J.M. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. N-terminal fragments of intestinal cholecystokinin: evidence for release of CCK-8 by cleavage on the carboxyl side of Arg74 of proCCK. Blanke, S.E., Johnsen, A.H., Rehfeld, J.F. Regul. Pept. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Double-stranded DNA-induced localized unfolding of HCV NS3 helicase subdomain 2. Liu, D., Windsor, W.T., Wyss, D.F. Protein Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Mutational replacements in subtilisin 309. Val104 has a modulating effect on the P4 substrate preference. Bech, L.M., Sørensen, S.B., Breddam, K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Purification and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of human thymidylate synthase in an overproducing transformant of mouse FM3A cells. Shimizu, K., Ayusawa, D., Takeishi, K., Seno, T. J. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
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