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Gene Review

hilD  -  transcriptional regulator HilD

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2

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Disease relevance of hilD

  • A mutation in hilD significantly reduces the ability of S. typhimurium to enter tissue culture cells, whereas a mutation in hilC only modestly affects Salmonella invasion [1].

High impact information on hilD

  • We demonstrate that HilC, HilD and RtsA are each capable of independently inducing expression of the hilC, hilD and rtsA genes, and that each can independently activate hilA [2].
  • Expression of hilA:Tn5lacZY and invF:Tn5lacZY in the fis mutant could be restored by introducing a plasmid containing the S. typhimurium fis gene or a plasmid containing hilD, a gene encoding an AraC-like regulator of Salmonella invasion genes [3].
  • Six class 1 and six class 2 mutants have insertions in SPI-1 near the invasion gene orgA or the invasion gene regulator hilD, respectively [4].

Biological context of hilD

  • The hilA and hilC promoters contain multiple binding sites of each type, whereas the hilD promoter contains a site that binds HilC but not HilD without additional binding elements [5].
  • RtsA also induces expression of hilD, hilC, and the invF operon [6].

Other interactions of hilD

  • Gel electrophoretic shift and DNase footprinting assays revealed that purified HilC and HilD proteins can bind to multiple regions in the hilA and hilC promoters and to a single region in the hilD promoter [5].


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