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Gene Review

invF  -  transcriptional regulator InvF

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2

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Disease relevance of invF


High impact information on invF

  • The DeltarelADeltaspoT strain exhibited severely reduced expression of hilA and invF, encoding major transcriptional activators required for Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) gene expression and at least two other pathogenicity islands [3].
  • This decreased expression of hilA and invF resulted in an altered secreted invasion protein profile in the fis mutant [4].
  • In order to understand how HilA controls the transcription of SPI-1 genes, we have analysed the invF and prgH promoters [5].
  • This excessive induction of apoptosis was abrogated by disruption of invF, which is required for the expression of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) genes [6].
  • Transcription assays demonstrated that invasion gene regulators (e.g., sirC and invF) are repressed by bile [7].

Biological context of invF

  • However, neither SirA nor HilA is believed to directly activate the promoters of these genes. invF, the first gene of the inv-spa gene cluster, is predicted to encode an AraC-type transcriptional activator and is required for invasion into cultured epithelial cells [8].
  • The nucleotide sequences of invF and invG indicated that these genes encode polypeptides with predicted molecular weights of 24,373 and 62,275, respectively [1].

Other interactions of invF

  • Genetic evidence is also presented suggesting there is HilA-dependent readthrough transcription from the invF promoter at least through sipC [8].


  1. The Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes invF and invG encode homologues of the AraC and PulD family of proteins. Kaniga, K., Bossio, J.C., Galán, J.E. Mol. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. The putative invasion protein chaperone SicA acts together with InvF to activate the expression of Salmonella typhimurium virulence genes. Darwin, K.H., Miller, V.L. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The bacterial signal molecule, ppGpp, regulates Salmonella virulence gene expression. Pizarro-Cerdá, J., Tedin, K. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Fis, a DNA nucleoid-associated protein, is involved in Salmonella typhimurium SPI-1 invasion gene expression. Wilson, R.L., Libby, S.J., Freet, A.M., Boddicker, J.D., Fahlen, T.F., Jones, B.D. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The cis requirements for transcriptional activation by HilA, a virulence determinant encoded on SPI-1. Lostroh, C.P., Bajaj, V., Lee, C.A. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Derepression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 genes within macrophages leads to rapid apoptosis via caspase-1- and caspase-3-dependent pathways. Takaya, A., Suzuki, A., Kikuchi, Y., Eguchi, M., Isogai, E., Tomoyasu, T., Yamamoto, T. Cell. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium invasion is repressed in the presence of bile. Prouty, A.M., Gunn, J.S. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. InvF is required for expression of genes encoding proteins secreted by the SPI1 type III secretion apparatus in Salmonella typhimurium. Darwin, K.H., Miller, V.L. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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