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Gene Review

CSN2  -  casein beta

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Beta-casein, CASB
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High impact information on CSN2

  • We report that fission yeast Ddb1, Cullin 4 (Pcu4), and CSN subunits Csn1 and Csn2 are required for degradation of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor protein Spd1 [1].
  • The human CSN2 and STATH genes were not expressed in the transchromosomal mice [2].
  • Using polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA from somatic cell hybrids, we have localized the human beta-casein gene (CSN2) to 4pter----q21 [3].
  • The nucleotide (nt) sequence contained an open reading frame sufficient to encode the entire amino-acid (aa) sequence of a beta-casein precursor protein consisting of 210 aa and a signal peptide of 15 aa [4].
  • Epo treated ARO-81 cells only had an increase in CSN2 expression [5].

Biological context of CSN2


Other interactions of CSN2

  • On the one hand, the physico-chemical measures of interactions of signal peptides of casein beta and alpha s2 confirm their mutual genetic relationship, and on the other hand they show the divergence of casein beta and alpha s2 from casein kappa signal peptide [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CSN2

  • By isotopic in situ hybridization, CSN2 was regionally localized to sheep Chr (OOV) 6q22-q31, anchoring this syntenic group of markers on to OOV6 and confirming its homology at a molecular and cytological level with cattle Chr 6 [9].


  1. Ddb1 controls genome stability and meiosis in fission yeast. Holmberg, C., Fleck, O., Hansen, H.A., Liu, C., Slaaby, R., Carr, A.M., Nielsen, O. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Controlled transgene dosage and PAC-mediated transgenesis in mice using a chromosomal vector. Voet, T., Schoenmakers, E., Carpentier, S., Labaere, C., Marynen, P. Genomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Regional localization of human beta-casein gene (CSN2) to 4pter-q21. Menon, R.S., Chang, Y.F., Jeffers, K.F., Jones, C., Ham, R.G. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding human milk beta-casein. Lönnerdal, B., Bergström, S., Andersson, Y., Hjalmarsson, K., Sundqvist, A.K., Hernell, O. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Erythropoietin in thyroid cancer. Yates, C.M., Patel, A., Oakley, K., Helms, A., Tuttle, R.M., Francis, G.L. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Assignment of the gene for beta-casein (CSN2) to 4q13 --> q21 in humans and 3p13 --> p12 in chimpanzees. McConkey, E.H., Menon, R., Williams, G., Baker, E., Sutherland, G.R. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. RFLP and linkage analysis of the porcine casein loci--CASAS1, CASAS2, CASB and CASK. Archibald, A.L., Couperwhite, S., Haley, C.S., Beattie, C.W., Alexander, L.J. Anim. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Study of tensioactive properties of casein signal peptides and their interactions with phospholipids. Creuzenet, C., Haertlé, T. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Seven loci on human chromosome 4 map onto sheep chromosome 6: a proposal to restore the original nomenclature of this sheep chromosome. Broad, T.E., Burkin, D.J., Cambridge, L.M., Maher, D.W., Lewis, P.E., Ansari, H.A., Pearce, P.D., Jones, C. Mamm. Genome (1994) [Pubmed]
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