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Gene Review

tni-4  -  Protein TNI-4

Caenorhabditis elegans

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Psychiatry related information on troponin


High impact information on troponin

  • The structural gene for this troponin is pat-10 and mutations in this gene lead to animals that arrest as twofold paralyzed embryos late in development [2].
  • We show that contraction of the ovarian muscle requires tropomyosin and troponin, which are generally major actin-linked regulators of contraction of striated muscle [3].
  • Molluscs lack actin control since troponin is not present in sufficient quantities [4].
  • Experiments revealed that unc-27 is one of four C. elegans troponin I genes and that three mutant alleles truncate the protein: recessive and presumed null allele e155 terminates after nine codons; semidominant su142sd eliminates the inhibitory and C-terminal regions; and semidominant su195sd abbreviates the extreme C-terminus [5].
  • To characterize the Caenorhabditis elegans troponin I family, we analyzed gene structures, tissue expression patterns and RNAi phenotypes of four troponin I isoforms [6].

Biological context of troponin

  • Further studies on troponin using an antiserum raised to the recombinant protein demonstrated that the protein, unlike the mRNA, was present in all life-cycle stages examined, while immunogold labelling demonstrated that it was localized to the muscle blocks [7].

Anatomical context of troponin

  • The increased synthesis of forms of myosin, actin and troponin in the nematode living in the rapid-responder SWR host may relate to the attempted reorganisation or repair of the cytoskeleton and/or muscle layer in the host immune initiated, increased mucus production and smooth muscle activity within intestinal environment [8].

Other interactions of troponin

  • The tni-3 RNAi expression produced egg laying defects while the tni-4 RNAi caused arrest at gastrulation [6].


  1. C. elegans model for studying tropomyosin and troponin regulations of muscle contraction and animal behavior. Kagawa, H., Takaya, T., Ruksana, R., Anokye-Danso, F., Amin, M.Z., Terami, H. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Genomic organization, expression, and analysis of the troponin C gene pat-10 of Caenorhabditis elegans. Terami, H., Williams, B.D., Kitamura, S., Sakube, Y., Matsumoto, S., Doi, S., Obinata, T., Kagawa, H. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Tropomyosin and troponin are required for ovarian contraction in the Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive system. Ono, K., Ono, S. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of muscular contraction. Distribution of actin control and myosin control in the animal kingdom. Lehman, W., Szent-Györgyi, A.G. J. Gen. Physiol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Disruption of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle structure and function caused by mutation of troponin I. Burkeen, A.K., Maday, S.L., Rybicka, K.K., Sulcove, J.A., Ward, J., Huang, M.M., Barstead, R., Franzini-Armstrong, C., Allen, T.S. Biophys. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Tissue expression of four troponin I genes and their molecular interactions with two troponin C isoforms in Caenorhabditis elegans. Ruksana, R., Kuroda, K., Terami, H., Bando, T., Kitaoka, S., Takaya, T., Sakube, Y., Kagawa, H. Genes Cells (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The isolation of differentially expressed cDNA clones from the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi. Hunter, S.J., Martin, S.A., Thompson, F.J., Tetley, L., Devaney, E. Parasitology (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Plasticity demonstrated in the proteome of a parasitic nematode within the intestine of different host strains. Morgan, C., LaCourse, E.J., Rushbrook, B.J., Greetham, D., Hamilton, J.V., Barrett, J., Bailey, K., Brophy, P.M. Proteomics (2006) [Pubmed]
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