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Gene Review

arx-1  -  Protein ARX-1

Caenorhabditis elegans

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Disease relevance of actin

  • We examined the temporal order of trans- and cis-splicing by analyzing cDNAs of partially processed transcripts from an actin gene of the parasitic nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, which has five short introns [1].

High impact information on actin

  • Our results suggest that UNC-73 acts cell autonomously in a protein complex to regulate actin dynamics during cell and growth cone migrations [2].
  • The evidence suggests that the actin mRNA leader sequence is acquired from this novel nucleotide transcript by an intermolecular trans-splicing mechanism [3].
  • The myosin binds to F actin in a polar and ATP-sensitive manner, and the Mg2+-ATPase is activated by either F actin or nematode thin filaments [4].
  • We focus on asymmetric cell division as a function of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, emphasizing the cell biology of polarity [5].
  • In hair cells of the inner ear, evidence suggests that an extracellular tip link pulls on a channel, which attached intracellularly to actin via a tension-regulating myosin 1beta [6].

Biological context of actin

  • Recent insights from this system have determined the involvement in morphogenesis of key proteins, including the actin-regulating WASP and Ena proteins, potential guidance molecules such as the Eph and Robo receptors, and the cell-cell signaling proteins of the Wnt pathway [7].
  • RNA interference of Ce-kettin caused weak disorganization of the actin filaments in body wall muscle [8].
  • Although the model refers primarily to the locomotion of nematode sperm, it has important implications for the mechanics of actin-based cell motility [9].
  • It is hypothesized that actin plays a role in the shaping of the cell and in the arrangement of its organelles during nematode spermiogenesis, when MSP is present, in an inactive state, in the fibrous bodies [10].
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum, previous studies have reported that sperm motility does not involve actin, but, instead, requires a specific cytoskeletal protein, namely major-sperm-protein (MSP) [10].

Anatomical context of actin

  • Given these advantages, it has been possible to use C. elegans to investigate the different ways in which the actin cytoskeleton drives the cellular rearrangements underlying morphogenesis, through regulated polymerization or actomyosin contraction [7].
  • TM4SF10 colocalized with ZO1 and p120ctn in undifferentiated confluent podocytes and also colocalized with the tips of actin filaments at cell contacts [11].
  • Tropomyosin shows a distinct pattern in spermatids, but is located in the MSP and actin-containing cap in spermatozoa [10].
  • We have studied the localization of actin and MSP in spermatids and spermatozoa of Graphidium strigosum (Dujardin, 1845), a species which has elongate male germ cells in which organelles are easily identified [12].
  • Immunocytochemical observations reveal that actin and MSP have an identical localization in precise areas of the male germ cells [12].

Associations of actin with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of actin

  • However, the mechanism by which AIP1 interacts with ADF/cofilin and actin is not clearly understood [18].

Co-localisations of actin

  • The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-87 gene product is essential for the maintenance of the nematode body wall muscle where it is found colocalized with actin in the I band [19].

Regulatory relationships of actin


Other interactions of actin

  • Sperm of the nematode, Ascaris suum, are amoeboid cells that do not require actin or myosin to crawl over solid substrata [22].
  • Moreover, nematode sperm lack detectable molecular motors or the battery of actin-binding proteins that characterize actin-based motility [9].
  • The increased synthesis of forms of myosin, actin and troponin in the nematode living in the rapid-responder SWR host may relate to the attempted reorganisation or repair of the cytoskeleton and/or muscle layer in the host immune initiated, increased mucus production and smooth muscle activity within intestinal environment [23].
  • Here, we performed a detailed characterization of the pha-2 phenotype using cell-type-specific reporters, physical manipulation of the nuclei in pharyngeal muscle cells using "optical tweezers", electron microscopy, staining of the actin cytoskeleton as well as phenotypic rescue and ectopic expression experiments [24].
  • Three different X-chromosome clones, including part of an actin gene, part of a myosin heavy chain gene, and all of two myosin light chain genes, feminize chromosomal males [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of actin


  1. cis-splicing and polyadenylation of actin RNA can precede 5' trans-splicing in nematodes. Shiwaku, K., Donelson, J.E. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. UNC-73 activates the Rac GTPase and is required for cell and growth cone migrations in C. elegans. Steven, R., Kubiseski, T.J., Zheng, H., Kulkarni, S., Mancillas, J., Ruiz Morales, A., Hogue, C.W., Pawson, T., Culotti, J. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. A trans-spliced leader sequence on actin mRNA in C. elegans. Krause, M., Hirsh, D. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Myosin and paramyosin of Caenorhabditis elegans: biochemical and structural properties of wild-type and mutant proteins. Harris, H.E., Epstein, H.F. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Asymmetric cell division in C. elegans: cortical polarity and spindle positioning. Cowan, C.R., Hyman, A.A. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. The molecules of mechanosensation. Garcia-Anoveros, J., Corey, D.P. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Actin-based forces driving embryonic morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Marston, D.J., Goldstein, B. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Caenorhabditis elegans kettin, a large immunoglobulin-like repeat protein, binds to filamentous actin and provides mechanical stability to the contractile apparatuses in body wall muscle. Ono, K., Yu, R., Mohri, K., Ono, S. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. How nematode sperm crawl. Bottino, D., Mogilner, A., Roberts, T., Stewart, M., Oster, G. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Actin and major sperm protein in spermatids and spermatozoa of the parasitic nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Mansir, A., Justine, J.L. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of TM4SF10, a Claudin/EMP/PMP22 family cell junction protein, during mouse kidney development and podocyte differentiation. Bruggeman, L.A., Martinka, S., Simske, J.S. Dev. Dyn. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Actin and major sperm protein in spermatozoa of a nematode, Graphidium strigosum (Strongylida: Trichostrongylidae). Mansir, A., Justine, J.L. Folia Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Purified thick filaments from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: evidence for multiple proteins associated with core structures. Epstein, H.F., Berliner, G.C., Casey, D.L., Ortiz, I. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Ash/Grb-2, a SH2/SH3-containing protein, couples to signaling for mitogenesis and cytoskeletal reorganization by EGF and PDGF. Matuoka, K., Shibasaki, F., Shibata, M., Takenawa, T. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. The C-terminal tail of UNC-60B (actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin) is critical for maintaining its stable association with F-actin and is implicated in the second actin-binding site. Ono, S., McGough, A., Pope, B.J., Tolbert, V.T., Bui, A., Pohl, J., Benian, G.M., Gernert, K.M., Weeds, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Talin requires beta-integrin, but not vinculin, for its assembly into focal adhesion-like structures in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Moulder, G.L., Huang, M.M., Waterston, R.H., Barstead, R.J. Mol. Biol. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Complete primary structure of vertebrate smooth muscle myosin heavy chain deduced from its complementary DNA sequence. Implications on topography and function of myosin. Yanagisawa, M., Hamada, Y., Katsuragawa, Y., Imamura, M., Mikawa, T., Masaki, T. J. Mol. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of functional residues on Caenorhabditis elegans actin-interacting protein 1 (UNC-78) for disassembly of actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin-bound actin filaments. Mohri, K., Vorobiev, S., Fedorov, A.A., Almo, S.C., Ono, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. UNC-87 is an actin-bundling protein. Kranewitter, W.J., Ylanne, J., Gimona, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. CRMP-2 is involved in kinesin-1-dependent transport of the Sra-1/WAVE1 complex and axon formation. Kawano, Y., Yoshimura, T., Tsuboi, D., Kawabata, S., Kaneko-Kawano, T., Shirataki, H., Takenawa, T., Kaibuchi, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of muscular contraction. Distribution of actin control and myosin control in the animal kingdom. Lehman, W., Szent-Györgyi, A.G. J. Gen. Physiol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Supramolecular assemblies of the Ascaris suum major sperm protein (MSP) associated with amoeboid cell motility. King, K.L., Stewart, M., Roberts, T.M. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Plasticity demonstrated in the proteome of a parasitic nematode within the intestine of different host strains. Morgan, C., LaCourse, E.J., Rushbrook, B.J., Greetham, D., Hamilton, J.V., Barrett, J., Bailey, K., Brophy, P.M. Proteomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Misexpression of acetylcholinesterases in the C. elegans pha-2 mutant accompanies ultrastructural defects in pharyngeal muscle cells. Mörck, C., Axäng, C., Goksör, M., Pilon, M. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Microinjected DNA from the X chromosome affects sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans. McCoubrey, W.K., Nordstrom, K.D., Meneely, P.M. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. The development and evolution of actin-containing organelles during spermiogenesis of a primitive nematode. Noury-Sraïri, N., Gourbault, N., Justine, J.L. Biol. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. The large GTPase dynamin associates with the spindle midzone and is required for cytokinesis. Thompson, H.M., Skop, A.R., Euteneuer, U., Meyer, B.J., McNiven, M.A. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. HSP25, a small heat shock protein associated with dense bodies and M-lines of body wall muscle in Caenorhabditis elegans. Ding, L., Candido, E.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Interhead distance measurements in myosin VI via SHRImP support a simplified hand-over-hand model. Balci, H., Ha, T., Sweeney, H.L., Selvin, P.R. Biophys. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Caenorhabditis elegans spermatozoan locomotion: amoeboid movement with almost no actin. Nelson, G.A., Roberts, T.M., Ward, S. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
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