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Gene Review

AK4  -  adenylate kinase 4

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AK 4, AK3, AK3L1, AK3L2, Adenylate kinase 3-like, ...
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High impact information on AK3L1

  • AK4 maintains homeostatic cellular ATP levels across many cell types and modulates the AMPK signaling pathway. [1]
  • The purified protein had an identical molecular mass (nonreduced) to platelet membrane GMP-140 (approximately 3 kD lower, reduced) and was immunoblotted by polyclonal anti-GMP-140, and the anti-GMP-140 monoclonal antibodies AK4 and AK6 [2].
  • The 5'-flanking region of the gene encoding human adenylate kinase isozyme 3 was isolated and compared with that of the bovine AK3 gene previously characterized [3].
  • In this study, we first confirmed that AK2 is distributed in liver cells in both the cytosol and the intermembrane space of mitochondria, while AK3 is localized exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix [4].
  • Next, we analyzed the process of import of AK2 and AK3 by incubating isolated rat mitochondria with proteins that were synthesized in a reticulocyte lysate translation system [4].
  • Biotinylated platelets were exposed to Hepes-Tyrode buffer, 10E5 or PAC-1 [monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) blocking GPIIb-IIIa], AK4 (Mab blocking P-selectin, 6D1 (Mab blocking vWf binding to GPIb), RGDS (small peptide blocking the fibrinogen binding site), or EDTA (dissociates GPIIb-IIIa complex) and then activated with thrombin [5].

Anatomical context of AK3L1

  • In contrast, AK3 was imported into mitochondria after completion of protein synthesis [4].

Other interactions of AK3L1


  1. A mitochondrial RNAi screen defines cellular bioenergetic determinants and identifies an adenylate kinase as a key regulator of ATP levels. Lanning, N.J., Looyenga, B.D., Kauffman, A.L., Niemi, N.M., Sudderth, J., DeBerardinis, R.J., MacKeigan, J.P. Cell. Rep. (2014) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of GMP-140 (P-selectin) as a circulating plasma protein. Dunlop, L.C., Skinner, M.P., Bendall, L.J., Favaloro, E.J., Castaldi, P.A., Gorman, J.J., Gamble, J.R., Vadas, M.A., Berndt, M.C. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and functional characterization of the promoter region of the gene encoding human adenylate kinase isozyme 3. Noma, T., Adachi, N., Nakazawa, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Mechanism of mitochondrial import of adenylate kinase isozymes. Nobumoto, M., Yamada, M., Song, S., Inouye, S., Nakazawa, A. J. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Adhesion of activated platelets to venous endothelial cells is mediated via GPIIb/IIIa. Li, J.M., Podolsky, R.S., Rohrer, M.J., Cutler, B.S., Massie, M.T., Barnard, M.R., Michelson, A.D. J. Surg. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Dynamics of nucleotide metabolism as a supporter of life phenomena. Noma, T. J. Med. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
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