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Gene Review

AK2  -  adenylate kinase 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADK2, AK 2, ATP-AMP transphosphorylase 2, ATP:AMP phosphotransferase, Adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial, ...
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High impact information on AK2

  • This residual activity is consistent with the existence of genetically independent AK isozyme, AK2, which is known to exist in these tissues [1].
  • The minute amount of residual activity in erythrocytes could represent a small amount of the AK2 isozyme, which has not been thought to be present in erythrocytes, or the activity of erythrocyte guanylate kinase with AMP substituting as substrate for GMP [1].
  • We observed a caspase-independent, simultaneous release of cytochrome c, Smac, Omi, and adenylate kinase-2 [2].
  • The contribution of the GPIbalpha receptor to platelet activation induced by the anti-beta2GPI antibody-beta2GPI complex was assessed by observing the influence of 2 anti-GPIbalpha antibodies (AK2 and SZ2) directed against distinct epitopes [3].
  • Activation of Rap1B induced by thrombin was not affected by preincubation of platelets with the anti-GPIbalpha monoclonal antibody AK2 in the absence of ADP scavengers or a P2Y12 antagonist but was totally abolished when secreted ADP was neutralized or after blockade of the P2Y12 receptor [4].

Biological context of AK2

  • However, three isozymes, AK1, AK2 and AK3, have been characterized in mammalian cells and shown to be localized in the cytosol, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, respectively, and it is unknown which one of these isozymes accumulates in the cytosol during apoptosis [5].
  • Somatic cell hybrid studies indicate that the AK3 locus is not syntenic with that of AK2 (chromosome 1) [6].
  • The observed gene frequencies are PGM21 = 0.280; AK2 = 0.030; ADA2 = 0.091; ACPa = 0.297; ACPb = 0.647; ACPc = 0.056 [7].
  • These results suggested the presence of the tissue-specific gene-expression including post-transcriptional regulation in expression of the AK2 gene [8].
  • We isolated two kinds of cDNAs encoding human adenylate kinase (AK) isozyme 2 from a HeLa cell cDNA library using bovine AK2 cDNA as a probe [8].

Anatomical context of AK2


Associations of AK2 with chemical compounds

  • However, AK1 showed a greater affinity than AK2 to anti-lobster arginine kinase antibodies, particularly to those raised against the native enzyme [12].
  • The overall gene frequencies were as follows: Hp1, 0.21; Gc1F, 0.34; Gc1S, 0.36; Gc2, 0.30; TfC1, 0.66; TfC2, 0.26; TfC3, 0.001; TfD, 0.06; GLO1, 0.21; PGI2, 0.04; AK2, 0.01; PGM1+, 0.80; PGM1-, 0.06; PGM2+, 0.11 and PGM2-, 0.02 [13].
  • 3. AK1 had slower electrophoretic mobility at pH 8.3 towards the anode, higher lysine content, lower glutamate content, lower Km for L-arginine and higher Km for Mg(2+)-ATP than AK2 [12].
  • Aggregation supported by vWF unlike fibrinogen supported aggregation was almost completely inhibited not only by GPIIb-IIIa antagonists (F(ab')2 fragment of blocking anti-GPIIb-IIIa antibody CRC64 and peptidomimetic aggrastat) but also by anti-GPIb blocking antibody AK2 [14].

Regulatory relationships of AK2


Other interactions of AK2

  • The other type (AK2B) encoded the same sequence as AK2 except for the COOH terminus [17].
  • The distribution of red cell enzymes showed Mongoloid characteristics with low PGDC, AK2, ESD1, GLO1, and higher pa [18].
  • AK2 is expressed in the intermembrane space, while AK3 and AK4 are localized in the mitochondrial matrix [19].
  • Assignment of ADA, ITPA, AK1, and AK2 to Chinese hamster chromosomes. Genetic and structural evidence for the conservation of mammalian autosomal synteny [20].
  • Further, there is no masking of the adenylate kinase 2 band as a result of the use of a reducing agent, and carbonic anhydrase II is resolved without interference from hemoglobin as has been observed with other multisystem methods [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AK2


  1. Metabolic compensation for profound erythrocyte adenylate kinase deficiency. A hereditary enzyme defect without hemolytic anemia. Beutler, E., Carson, D., Dannawi, H., Forman, L., Kuhl, W., West, C., Westwood, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Different mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins are released during apoptosis in a manner that is coordinately initiated but can vary in duration. Muñoz-Pinedo, C., Guío-Carrión, A., Goldstein, J.C., Fitzgerald, P., Newmeyer, D.D., Green, D.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies in complex with beta2-glycoprotein I can activate platelets in a dysregulated manner via glycoprotein Ib-IX-V. Shi, T., Giannakopoulos, B., Yan, X., Yu, P., Berndt, M.C., Andrews, R.K., Rivera, J., Iverson, G.M., Cockerill, K.A., Linnik, M.D., Krilis, S.A. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Contribution of protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 and glycoprotein Ib-IX-V in the G(i)-independent activation of platelet Rap1B by thrombin. Lova, P., Campus, F., Lombardi, R., Cattaneo, M., Sinigaglia, F., Balduini, C., Torti, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Release of adenylate kinase 2 from the mitochondrial intermembrane space during apoptosis. Köhler, C., Gahm, A., Noma, T., Nakazawa, A., Orrenius, S., Zhivotovsky, B. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Adenylate kinases in man: evidence for a third locus. Wilson, D.E., Povey, S., Harris, H. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. An analysis of red cell enzymatic markers in the province of Bologna (Italy). Beretta, M., Barberio, C., Ranzani, G., Bertolotti, E.G. Hum. Hered. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. cDNA cloning and tissue-specific expression of the gene encoding human adenylate kinase isozyme 2. Noma, T., Song, S., Yoon, Y.S., Tanaka, S., Nakazawa, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning and expression of human adenylate kinase 2 isozymes: differential expression of adenylate kinase 1 and 2 in human muscle tissues. Lee, Y., Kim, J.W., Lee, S.M., Kim, H.J., Lee, K.S., Park, C., Choe, I.S. J. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Adenylate kinase 2, a mitochondrial enzyme. Bruns, G.A., Regina, V.M. Biochem. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Cellular phosphorylation of 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate, a key intermediate in the activation of the antiviral agent DDI, in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Robbins, B.L., Greenhaw, J., Fridland, A. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Purification and properties of two molecular forms of arginine kinase from the adductor muscle of the scallop, Pecten maximus. Reddy, S.R., Roustan, C., Benyamin, Y. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. The distribution of some serum protein and red cell enzyme polymorphisms in the Koch ethnic group of West Bengal, India. Saha, N., Tay, J.S., Das, M.K., Das, K., Roy, M., Dey, B., Banerjee, S., Mukherjee, B.N. Jinrui Idengaku Zasshi (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Von Willebrand factor can support platelet aggregation via interaction with activated GPIIb-IIIa and GPIb. Naimushin, Y.A., Mazurov, A.V. Platelets (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of the human adenylate kinase isozymes, phosphopyruvate hydratase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglucomutase-1 in man-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Bruns, G.A., Gerald, P.S. Biochem. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Proteome characterization of human NK-92 cells identifies novel IFN-alpha and IL-15 target genes. Rakkola, R., Matikainen, S., Nyman, T.A. J. Proteome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Gene structures of three vertebrate adenylate kinase isozymes. Nakazawa, A., Yamada, M., Tanaka, H., Shahjahan, M., Tanabe, T. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Blood genetic markers in the Chinese of two eastern provinces. Saha, N. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Dynamics of nucleotide metabolism as a supporter of life phenomena. Noma, T. J. Med. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Assignment of ADA, ITPA, AK1, and AK2 to Chinese hamster chromosomes. Genetic and structural evidence for the conservation of mammalian autosomal synteny. Stallings, R.L., Siciliano, M.J. J. Hered. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. A double origin electrophoretic method for the simultaneous separation of adenosine deaminase, adenylate kinase, and carbonic anhydrase II. Murch, R.S., Gambel, A.M., Kearney, J.J. J. Forensic Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Red cell adenylate kinase deficiency associated with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia: clinical and biochemical studies. Miwa, S., Fujii, H., Tani, K., Takahashi, K., Takizawa, T., Igarashi, T. Am. J. Hematol. (1983) [Pubmed]
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