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Gene Review

blaR1  -  beta-lactamase regulatory protein BlaR1

Staphylococcus aureus

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Disease relevance of blaR1


High impact information on blaR1

  • Insertion of Tn5404 close to resR and to the structural and regulatory beta-lactamase genes (blaZ, blal, blaR1) of pIP1066, generated a 3.5 kb invertible segment flanked by inversely repeated resolution sites (resR, resL) [3].
  • The DNA sequence between blaR1 and a Tn4001-like element was determined [4].
  • The production of PBP2' is under dual control by its own mecR1-mecI- and the penicillinase blaR1-blaI-encoded regulatory elements [5].
  • A mutation in blaR1 that resulted in the complete repression of PBP 2a production altered the phenotypic expression of methicillin resistance in that strain, as evidenced by efficiency-of-plating experiments [6].
  • Recent reports have revealed the presence of two adjacent genes upstream of the staphylococcal blaZ thought to be the antirepressor (blaR1) and repressor (blaI) genes [1].

Other interactions of blaR1

  • The mec and bla regulators, mecR1-mecI and blaR1-blaI, respectively, encode inducer-repressors with sufficient amino acid homology to suggest that they could coregulate PBP2a production [7].
  • RESULTS: All penicillin-resistant strains carried blaZ and showed a similar organization of blaR1 and blaZ [8].
  • The presence of mecR1/mecI and blaR1/blaI genes correlated with the expression of low-level methicillin resistance in CNS [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of blaR1

  • Furthermore, the presence of blaZ and blaR1 and the location of blaZ was determined by PCR and hybridisation [10].


  1. Genes involved in the regulation of beta-lactamase production in enterococci and staphylococci. Zscheck, K.K., Murray, B.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. blaI and blaR1 regulate beta-lactamase and PBP 2a production in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Hackbarth, C.J., Chambers, H.F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Rearrangements in the staphylococcal beta-lactamase-encoding plasmid, pIP1066, including a DNA inversion that generates two alternative transposons. Derbise, A., Dyke, K.G., el Solh, N. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Antagonism between aminoglycosides and beta-lactams in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate involves induction of an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme. Ida, T., Okamoto, R., Nonoyama, M., Irinoda, K., Kurazono, M., Inoue, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetic basis of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Berger-Bächi, B. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Altered production of penicillin-binding protein 2a can affect phenotypic expression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Hackbarth, C.J., Miick, C., Chambers, H.F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Transcription of the gene mediating methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (mecA) is corepressed but not coinduced by cognate mecA and beta-lactamase regulators. McKinney, T.K., Sharma, V.K., Craig, W.A., Archer, G.L. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Diversity and evolution of blaZ from Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Olsen, J.E., Christensen, H., Aarestrup, F.M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Presence of mec genes and overproduction of beta-lactamase in the expression of low-level methicillin resistance among staphylococci. Petinaki, E., Arvaniti, A., Bartzavali, C., Dimitracopoulos, G., Spiliopoulou, I. Chemotherapy. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Occurrence of the blaZ gene in penicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Denmark. Vesterholm-Nielsen, M., Olhom Larsen, M., Elmerdahl Olsen, J., Moller Aarestrup, F. Acta Vet. Scand. (1999) [Pubmed]
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