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Gene Review

blaZ  -  beta-lactamase

Staphylococcus aureus

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Disease relevance of blaZ


High impact information on blaZ


Chemical compound and disease context of blaZ


Biological context of blaZ

  • The qacA/B and blaZ probes hybridized to plasmids of similar size in three isolates [14].
  • Similarly, a pC194-based shuttle vector (pGX318) containing the 5' end of blaZ (including the promoter and the coding region for the signal sequence and the first few amino acids of the mature protein) was unable to transform B. subtilis [1].
  • Patterns of induction are influenced by the host strain and are slightly different from previous reports using the blaZ gene as reporter gene [15].
  • Nucleotide sequence of the Staphylococcus aureus PC1 beta-lactamase gene [16].
  • Kinetic measurements and electrospray mass spectrometry revealed that the first and third generation cephalosporins form stable acyl-enzyme complexes, except for the chromogenic cephalosporin, nitrocefin, which after acylating the enzyme undergoes hydrolysis at a 1000-fold slower rate than that with wild-type beta-lactamase [17].

Anatomical context of blaZ

  • These types include combinations of agents that inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis with aminoglycosidic aminocyclitols, the use of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics, and the administration of agents that act on sequential steps in one of the bacterial metabolic or synthetic pathways [18].
  • Failure to eradicate streptococci from patients can occasionally lead to rheumatic fever and rarely to glomerulonephritis. beta-lactamase-producing strains of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in inflamed tonsils have been associated with increased failure rates of penicillins in the eradication of these infections [19].
  • When 2 clinical strains of plasmid-mediated penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were treated with 1 mM sodium ascorbate for 6 h, 12-35% colony-forming units (CFU) irreversibly lost their ability to produce beta-lactamase [20].
  • The emergence of penicillin and multidrug-resistant pneumococci and beta-lactamase-producing strains of H influenzae and M catarrhalis have special importance for the management of infections of the middle ear [21].
  • Beta-lactamase, the bacterial enzyme that can inactivate penicillins, cephalosporins and related antibiotics, can function outside the cell or in the periplasmic space [22].

Associations of blaZ with chemical compounds

  • In the three other BC and penicillin-resistant strains, the qacA/B and blaZ genes were located on separate plasmids [14].
  • N-Carboxylated lysine also catalyzes hydrolytic deacylation of the acyl-enzyme species in the beta-lactamase [23].
  • The beta-lactamase genes could be transferred to enterococcal and staphylococcal recipients from WH257 and DEL by conjugation or transformation with selection for gentamicin resistance [24].
  • MecI-mediated repression of the synthesis of beta-lactamase was shown by reduction in the specific activity of nitrocefinase in bacteria containing a plasmid carrying mecI but not when containing the same plasmid deleted for mecI [9].
  • Most examples of antibiotic antagonism are those in which a bacteriostatic agent renders a bactericidal agent "static." Another type of antagonism occurs when cefoxitin (which has a propensity to induce beta-lactamase production) is combined with another beta-lactam antibiotic [18].

Other interactions of blaZ

  • Complete pbp2 sequences were determined for three BORSA, corresponding to ST25, ST1 and ST47, which were selected on the basis of lacking blaZ-encoded beta-lactamase [25].
  • Either inducible beta-lactamase regulatory genes blaR1-blaI or homologous regulatory genes mecR1-mecI, which control mecA expression, acted as compensatory elements, permitting the maintenance and expression of plasmid-carried mecA [26].
  • A novel plasmid (designated pUB102) harbouring far1, tetK and blaZ was characterised and partially sequenced [27].
  • The pre-steady state kinetics of the hydrolysis of sodium 3-dansylamidomethyl-7-beta (thienyl-2')-acetamidoceph-3-em-4-oate, catalyzed by the beta-lactamase of Staphylococcus aureus PC1, has been studied by the stopped flow method [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of blaZ


  1. Use of chromosomal integration in the establishment and expression of blaZ, a Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase gene, in Bacillus subtilis. Saunders, C.W., Schmidt, B.J., Mirot, M.S., Thompson, L.D., Guyer, M.S. J. Bacteriol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Nucleotide sequence and expression of the beta-lactamase gene from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Wang, P.Z., Novick, R.P. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and sequence determination of six Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamases and their expression in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. East, A.K., Dyke, K.G. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Surface vs core-tonsillar aerobic and anaerobic flora in recurrent tonsillitis. Brook, I., Yocum, P., Shah, K. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Changing patterns of hospital infections: implications for therapy. Changing mechanisms of bacterial resistance. Neu, H.C. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Failure of cephalosporins to prevent Staphylococcus aureus surgical wound infections. Kernodle, D.S., Classen, D.C., Burke, J.P., Kaiser, A.B. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. X-ray analysis of the NMC-A beta-lactamase at 1.64-A resolution, a class A carbapenemase with broad substrate specificity. Swarén, P., Maveyraud, L., Raquet, X., Cabantous, S., Duez, C., Pédelacq, J.D., Mariotte-Boyer, S., Mourey, L., Labia, R., Nicolas-Chanoine, M.H., Nordmann, P., Frère, J.M., Samama, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Unique features in the ribosome binding site sequence of the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase gene. McLaughlin, J.R., Murray, C.L., Rabinowitz, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. MecI represses synthesis from the beta-lactamase operon of Staphylococcus aureus. Lewis, R.A., Dyke, K.G. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Pre-steady state beta-lactamase kinetics. Observation of a covalent intermediate during turnover of a fluorescent cephalosporin by the beta-lactamase of STaphylococcus aureus PC1. Anderson, E.G., Pratt, R.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Beta-Lactam-beta-lactamase-inhibitor combinations are active in experimental endocarditis caused by beta-lactamase-producing oxacillin-resistant staphylococci. Hirano, L., Bayer, A.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Enterococcal transposon Tn5384: evolution of a composite transposon through cointegration of enterococcal and staphylococcal plasmids. Bonafede, M.E., Carias, L.L., Rice, L.B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro activities of LY163892, cefaclor, and cefuroxime. Knapp, C.C., Washington, J.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic linkage between resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and beta-lactam antibiotics in food-related Staphylococcus spp. Sidhu, M.S., Heir, E., Sørum, H., Holck, A. Microb. Drug Resist. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. luxAB gene fusions with the arsenic and cadmium resistance operons of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. Corbisier, P., Ji, G., Nuyts, G., Mergeay, M., Silver, S. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Nucleotide sequence of the Staphylococcus aureus PC1 beta-lactamase gene. Chan, P.T. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of the omega-loop in the activity, substrate specificity, and structure of class A beta-lactamase. Banerjee, S., Pieper, U., Kapadia, G., Pannell, L.K., Herzberg, O. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Rationale for use of antimicrobial combinations. Moellering, R.C. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Penicillin failure and copathogenicity in streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. Brook, I. The Journal of family practice. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Loss of penicillinase plasmids of Staphylococcus aureus after treatment with L-ascorbic acid. Amábile Cuevas, C.F. Mutat. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Strategies for decreasing multidrug antibiotic resistance: role of ototopical agents for treatment of middle ear infections. Klein, J.O. The American journal of managed care. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Evolution of beta-lactamase inhibitors. Rolinson, G.N. The Journal of reproductive medicine. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Lysine N(zeta)-Decarboxylation in the BlaR1 Protein from Staphylococcus aureus at the Root of Its Function As an Antibiotic Sensor. Cha, J., Mobashery, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Detection of genes regulating beta-lactamase production in Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Okamoto, R., Okubo, T., Inoue, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of different clonal complexes and diverse amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) associated with borderline oxacillin resistance in Canadian Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Nadarajah, J., Lee, M.J., Louie, L., Jacob, L., Simor, A.E., Louie, M., McGavin, M.J. J. Med. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Jumping the barrier to beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Katayama, Y., Zhang, H.Z., Hong, D., Chambers, H.F. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Microarray-based characterisation of a Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive community-acquired strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Monecke, S., Slickers, P., Hotzel, H., Richter-Huhn, G., Pohle, M., Weber, S., Witte, W., Ehricht, R. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Antagonism between aminoglycosides and beta-lactams in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate involves induction of an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme. Ida, T., Okamoto, R., Nonoyama, M., Irinoda, K., Kurazono, M., Inoue, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. The crystal structure of beta-lactamase from Staphylococcus aureus at 0.5 nm resolution. Moult, J., Sawyer, L., Herzberg, O., Jones, C.L., Coulson, A.F., Green, D.W., Harding, M.M., Ambler, R.P. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. A model to show the role of extracellular beta-lactamases in mediating staphylococcal resistance. Haller, I. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Comparative in-vitro activity of piperacillin and piperacillin plus tazobactam towards beta-lactamase producing clinical isolates. Stefani, S., Castiglia, P., Maida, A., Muresu, E., Mezzatesta, M.L., Nicoletti, G. Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy) (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Microbiological studies of tracheostomy site wounds. Brook, I. European journal of respiratory diseases. (1987) [Pubmed]
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