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Gene Review

smad2  -  SMAD family member 2

Danio rerio

Synonyms: MAD homolog 2, Mothers against DPP homolog 2, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2, SMAD 2, SO:0000704, ...
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High impact information on smad2

  • PPM1A dephosphorylates and promotes nuclear export of TGFbeta-activated Smad2/3 [1].
  • Mutations in oep eliminate the response to Squint and Cyclops overexpression but are suppressed by expression of Activin and activated forms of the type I receptor ActRIB and Smad2 [2].
  • The transcription factors Fast-1 and Mixer are important terminal components of Smad2-mediated TGF-beta signal transduction [3].
  • The proteins examined include activin subunits (betaA and betaB), activin-binding protein (follistatin), activin type II receptors (type IIA and IIB), the type I activin receptor-like kinases (ALK1-like, ALK2-like, and ALK4-like), and the intracellular activin signaling molecules (Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7) [4].
  • In summary, our analyses point out differences of Smad3b and Smad2 functions in zebrafish and provide the first link of smad3 and smad7 function in context of vertebrate development [5].

Anatomical context of smad2


Other interactions of smad2

  • In contrast to Smad1, neither Smad2 nor Smad5 caused a detectable effect when expressed as full-length molecules suggesting that these latter two Smads are more dependent on activation by the cognate TGFbeta ligands [6].
  • Overexpression of truncated smad2 in cyclops mutant embryos leads to a rescue of the eye and floorplate defects [7].
  • We report here the cloning, characterization and genomic mapping of smad2, smad3 and smad4 from the zebrafish, Danio rerio [7].
  • Cloning and characterization of zebrafish smad2, smad3 and smad4 [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of smad2


  1. PPM1A functions as a Smad phosphatase to terminate TGFbeta signaling. Lin, X., Duan, X., Liang, Y.Y., Su, Y., Wrighton, K.H., Long, J., Hu, M., Davis, C.M., Wang, J., Brunicardi, F.C., Shi, Y., Chen, Y.G., Meng, A., Feng, X.H. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. The EGF-CFC protein one-eyed pinhead is essential for nodal signaling. Gritsman, K., Zhang, J., Cheng, S., Heckscher, E., Talbot, W.S., Schier, A.F. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Vertebrate development: the fast track to nodal signalling. Stemple, D.L. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Spatial expression patterns of activin and its signaling system in the zebrafish ovarian follicle: evidence for paracrine action of activin on the oocytes. Wang, Y., Ge, W. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Zebrafish Smad7 is regulated by Smad3 and BMP signals. Pogoda, H.M., Meyer, D. Dev. Dyn. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of zebrafish smad1, smad2 and smad5: the amino-terminus of smad1 and smad5 is required for specific function in the embryo. Müller, F., Blader, P., Rastegar, S., Fischer, N., Knöchel, W., Strähle, U. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and characterization of zebrafish smad2, smad3 and smad4. Dick, A., Mayr, T., Bauer, H., Meier, A., Hammerschmidt, M. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
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