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Gene Review

Hk  -  Hyperkinetic

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG17779, CG2287, CG32688, CG34319, CG43388, ...
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High impact information on Hk

  • The hyperkinetic phase causes a drop in slo gene expression and makes animals more sensitive to benzyl alcohol [1].
  • Coexpression of Hk with Sh in Xenopus oocytes increases current amplitudes and changes the voltage dependence and kinetics of activation and inactivation, consistent with predicted functions of Hk in vivo [2].
  • We found that Sh, Hk, and eag mutant flies were all hypersensitive to paraquat [3].
  • Altered sensitivity of Hk currents to classical K+ channel blockers (4-aminopyridine, alpha-dendrotoxin, and TEA) indicated that Hk mutations modify interactions between voltage-activated K+ channels and these pharmacological probes, apparently by changing both the intra- and extracellular regions of the channel pore [4].
  • Analysis of centroid movement indicates that, compared to wild type, both Hk and para larvae crawled at a slower average speed, but a similar peak instantaneous speed during a contraction cycle [5].

Biological context of Hk


Anatomical context of Hk


Associations of Hk with chemical compounds

  • Heterologously expressed Hk dramatically increases the amplitudes of eag currents and also affects gating and modulation by progesterone [8].

Regulatory relationships of Hk

  • The modulatory effects of the Hk beta subunit appeared to be specific to the Sh alpha subunit because other voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K+ currents were not affected by Hk mutations [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hk

  • Sequence alignments show that Hk, together with mammalian Kv beta, represents an additional branch of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily [2].


  1. slo K(+) channel gene regulation mediates rapid drug tolerance. Ghezzi, A., Al-Hasan, Y.M., Larios, L.E., Bohm, R.A., Atkinson, N.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. A potassium channel beta subunit related to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily is encoded by the Drosophila hyperkinetic locus. Chouinard, S.W., Wilson, G.F., Schlimgen, A.K., Ganetzky, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. A novel leg-shaking Drosophila mutant defective in a voltage-gated K(+)current and hypersensitive to reactive oxygen species. Wang, J.W., Humphreys, J.M., Phillips, J.P., Hilliker, A.J., Wu, C.F. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Auxiliary Hyperkinetic beta subunit of K+ channels: regulation of firing properties and K+ currents in Drosophila neurons. Yao, W.D., Wu, C.F. J. Neurophysiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Morphometric description of the wandering behavior in Drosophila larvae: aberrant locomotion in Na+ and K+ channel mutants revealed by computer-assisted motion analysis. Wang, J.W., Sylwester, A.W., Reed, D., Wu, D.A., Soll, D.R., Wu, C.F. J. Neurogenet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of gene expression is linked to life span in adult Drosophila. Rogina, B., Helfand, S.L. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Altered synaptic transmission in Drosophila hyperkinetic mutants. Stern, M., Ganetzky, B. J. Neurogenet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Interaction of the K channel beta subunit, Hyperkinetic, with eag family members. Wilson, G.F., Wang, Z., Chouinard, S.W., Griffith, L.C., Ganetzky, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. In vivo functional role of the Drosophila hyperkinetic beta subunit in gating and inactivation of Shaker K+ channels. Wang, J.W., Wu, C.F. Biophys. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
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