The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

AC1L9FYS     1H-pyridin-4-amine

Synonyms: ZINC00599985, A828119, 4AP, 4-pyridin-1-iumamine, pyridin-1-ium-4-amine
This record was replaced with 1727.
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of 4-aminopyridine

  • These effects of high [Ca2+]o were mimicked by exposure of the preparations to low [Na+]o. Electrical homogeneity was restored and arrhythmias were abolished after addition of the Ito blocker 4-aminopyridine 1 mmol/L [1].
  • A highly significant correlation was demonstrated between the amplitude of the epicardial action potential notch and the amplitude of the J wave recorded during interventions that alter the appearance of the electrocardiographic J wave, including hypothermia, premature stimulation, and block of the transient outward current by 4-aminopyridine [2].
  • 4-Aminopyridine in multiple sclerosis [3].
  • However, subjective side effects such as paresthesias, dizziness, and light-headedness were frequently reported during 4-aminopyridine treatment [4].
  • That the conduction block was due to demyelination was indicated by slowing of conduction in large diameter fibres, normal conduction in unmyelinated fibres and the specific effects of temperature and of the potassium channel blocking agent, 4-aminopyridine [5].

Psychiatry related information on 4-aminopyridine


High impact information on 4-aminopyridine


Chemical compound and disease context of 4-aminopyridine


Biological context of 4-aminopyridine

  • We use 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to increase the number of transmitter quanta discharged with each nerve impulse, and show that the number of exocytotic vesicles caught by quick-freezing increases commensurately, indicating that one vesicle undergoes exocytosis for each quantum that is discharged [21].
  • As expected from their inhibition of the A-current, acetylcholine and 4-aminopyridine both increased the amplitude of the action potential and prolonged its duration [22].
  • This current was highly sensitive to 4-aminopyridine (IC50, 74 microM) [23].
  • The 4-aminopyridine sensitive transient outward current exhibited slow recovery kinetics compared to those of the other or calcium current, and its inhibition caused elimination of the augmented plateau during electrical restitution [24].
  • Administration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 100 microM) at concentrations that selectively depress IAs, reduced outward rectification of spiny neurons at subthreshold membrane potentials [25].

Anatomical context of 4-aminopyridine

  • Frog cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations were soaked in modified Ringer's solution with 1 mM 4-aminopyridine, 10 mM Ca2+, and 10(-4) M d-Tubocurarine and quick-frozen 1-10 ms after a single supramaximal shock [26].
  • The sequence of structural changes that occur during synaptic vesicle exocytosis was studied by quick-freezing muscles at different intervals after stimulating their nerves, in the presence of 4-aminopyridine to increase the number of transmitter quanta released by each stimulus [27].
  • Only when intoxicated nerves were stimulated in 4-aminopyridine (which grossly exaggerates calcium currents in normal nerves) or when they were soaked in black widow spider venom (which is a nerve-specific calcium ionophore) could nerve mitochondria be induced to swell and accumulate calcium [28].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We used whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques to study 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive voltage-dependent transient outward currents (Ito1) in Purkinje myocytes isolated from LV subendocardial (n = 14) and free-running (n = 15) bundles of the normal canine heart [29].
  • In isolated pulmonary arteries, 4-aminopyridine significantly inhibited NO-induced relaxation [30].

Associations of 4-aminopyridine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of 4-aminopyridine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of 4-aminopyridine


  1. High [Ca2+]o-induced electrical heterogeneity and extrasystolic activity in isolated canine ventricular epicardium. Phase 2 reentry. Di Diego, J.M., Antzelevitch, C. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Cellular basis for the electrocardiographic J wave. Yan, G.X., Antzelevitch, C. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. 4-Aminopyridine in multiple sclerosis. Polman, C.H., van Diemen, H.A., van Dongen, M.M., Koetsier, J.C., van Loenen, A.C., van Walbeek, H.K. Ann. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of 4-aminopyridine on clinical signs in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. van Diemen, H.A., Polman, C.H., van Dongen, T.M., van Loenen, A.C., Nauta, J.J., Taphoorn, M.J., van Walbeek, H.K., Koetsier, J.C. Ann. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. The pathophysiology of acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the rabbit. Pender, M.P., Sears, T.A. Brain (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of 4-aminopyridine in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease. Wesseling, H., Agoston, S., Van Dam, G.B., Pasma, J., DeWit, D.J., Havinga, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. [S]-AR-R 15896AR-A novel anticonvulsant: acute safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Palmer, G.C., Murray, R.J., Cramer, C.L., Stagnitto, M.L., Knowles, M.K., Freedman, L.R., Eismann, M.S., Mahmood, N., Balestra, M., Borrelli, A.R., Hudzik, T.J., McCarthy, D.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Postnatal development of ionic currents in rat hippocampal astrocytes in situ. Bordey, A., Sontheimer, H. J. Neurophysiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Characteristics of IA currents in adult rabbit cerebellar Purkinje cells. Wang, D., Schreurs, B.G. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Atropine- and tetrodotoxin-resistant motor activity, responsive to 4-aminopyridine, present in isolated rabbit jejunum. Gonzalez, D.R., Morales-Aguilera, A. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Excitatory synaptic responses mediated by GABAA receptors in the hippocampus. Michelson, H.B., Wong, R.K. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Unique roles of SK and Kv4.2 potassium channels in dendritic integration. Cai, X., Liang, C.W., Muralidharan, S., Muralidharan, S., Kao, J.P., Tang, C.M., Thompson, S.M. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Oxygen-induced constriction of rabbit ductus arteriosus occurs via inhibition of a 4-aminopyridine-, voltage-sensitive potassium channel. Tristani-Firouzi, M., Reeve, H.L., Tolarova, S., Weir, E.K., Archer, S.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. A characterization of the activating structural rearrangements in voltage-dependent Shaker K+ channels. McCormack, K., Joiner, W.J., Heinemann, S.H. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Effective treatment of verapamil intoxication with 4-aminopyridine in the cat. Agoston, S., Maestrone, E., van Hezik, E.J., Ket, J.M., Houwertjes, M.C., Uges, D.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Intracoronary flecainide induces ST alternans and reentrant arrhythmia on intact canine heart: A role of 4-aminopyridine-sensitive current. Tachibana, H., Yamaki, M., Kubota, I., Watanabe, T., Yamauchi, S., Tomoike, H. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Pinacidil-induced electrical heterogeneity and extrasystolic activity in canine ventricular tissues. Does activation of ATP-regulated potassium current promote phase 2 reentry? Di Diego, J.M., Antzelevitch, C. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Modulation of glomus cell membrane currents of intact rat carotid body. Donnelly, D.F. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. The effects of hyperglycaemic hypoxia on rectification in rat dorsal root axons. Grafe, P., Bostock, H., Schneider, U. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. 4-Aminopyridine is superior to 3,4-diaminopyridine in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. Polman, C.H., Bertelsmann, F.W., de Waal, R., van Diemen, H.A., Uitdehaag, B.M., van Loenen, A.C., Koetsier, J.C. Arch. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis captured by quick freezing and correlated with quantal transmitter release. Heuser, J.E., Reese, T.S., Dennis, M.J., Jan, Y., Jan, L., Evans, L. J. Cell Biol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Acetylcholine raises excitability by inhibiting the fast transient potassium current in cultured hippocampal neurons. Nakajima, Y., Nakajima, S., Leonard, R.J., Yamaguchi, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning and expression of a Kv1.2 class delayed rectifier K+ channel from canine colonic smooth muscle. Hart, P.J., Overturf, K.E., Russell, S.N., Carl, A., Hume, J.R., Sanders, K.M., Horowitz, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Mechanism of increased amplitude and duration of the plateau with sudden shortening of diastolic intervals in rabbit ventricular cells. Hiraoka, M., Kawano, S. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Potassium currents responsible for inward and outward rectification in rat neostriatal spiny projection neurons. Nisenbaum, E.S., Wilson, C.J. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Temporal coincidence between synaptic vesicle fusion and quantal secretion of acetylcholine. Torri-Tarelli, F., Grohovaz, F., Fesce, R., Ceccarelli, B. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Structural changes after transmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. Heuser, J.E., Reese, T.S. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Structural evidence that botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission by impairing the calcium influx that normally accompanies nerve depolarization. Hirokawa, N., Heuser, J.E. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Transient outward currents in subendocardial Purkinje myocytes surviving in the infarcted heart. Jeck, C., Pinto, J., Boyden, P. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. NO hyperpolarizes pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and decreases the intracellular Ca2+ concentration by activating voltage-gated K+ channels. Yuan, X.J., Tod, M.L., Rubin, L.J., Blaustein, M.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Potassium current suppression by quinidine reveals additional calcium currents in neuroblastoma cells. Fishman, M.C., Spector, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. Solubilization of the apamin receptor associated with a calcium-activated potassium channel from rat brain. Seagar, M.J., Marqueze, B., Couraud, F. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Adenosine decreases action potential duration by modulation of A-current in rat locus coeruleus neurons. Pan, W.J., Osmanović, S.S., Shefner, S.A. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. The current status of studies of aminopyridines in patients with multiple sclerosis. Bever, C.T. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Regulation of human basophil activation. II. Histamine release is potentiated by K+ efflux and inhibited by Na+ influx. Beauvais, F., Shimahara, T., Inoue, I., Hieblot, C., Burtin, C., Benveniste, J. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. The roles of potassium currents in Drosophila flight muscles. Elkins, T., Ganetzky, B. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. 4-Aminopyridine-induced epileptogenesis depends on activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK. Merlo, D., Cifelli, P., Cicconi, S., Tancredi, V., Avoli, M. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Overexpression of human KCNA5 increases IK V and enhances apoptosis. Brevnova, E.E., Platoshyn, O., Zhang, S., Yuan, J.X. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Expression of pannexin1 in the CNS of adult mouse: cellular localization and effect of 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures. Zappalà, A., Cicero, D., Serapide, M.F., Paz, C., Catania, M.V., Falchi, M., Parenti, R., Pantò, M.R., La Delia, F., Cicirata, F. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Abnormal electrical properties of myocytes from chronically infarcted canine heart. Alterations in Vmax and the transient outward current. Lue, W.M., Boyden, P.A. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  41. Increase of extracellular corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity levels in the amygdala of awake rats during restraint stress and ethanol withdrawal as measured by microdialysis. Merlo Pich, E., Lorang, M., Yeganeh, M., Rodriguez de Fonseca, F., Raber, J., Koob, G.F., Weiss, F. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  42. 4-Aminopyridine improves clinical signs in multiple sclerosis. Stefoski, D., Davis, F.A., Faut, M., Schauf, C.L. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities