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Gene Review

sd  -  scalloped

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG8544, DROEXO, DROEXO2, Dmel\CG8544, EP(X)1088, ...
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Disease relevance of sd


High impact information on sd

  • Scalloped (Sd) and Vestigial (Vg) are each needed for Drosophila wing development [2].
  • In vitro, Vg binds directly to both Sd and its human homolog, Transcription Enhancer Factor-1 [2].
  • The interaction domains map to a small region of Vg that is essential for Vg-mediated gene activation and to the carboxy-terminal half of Sd [2].
  • An sd enhancer trap strain expresses the reporter gene in a subset of neuroblasts in the central nervous system and in the peripheral sense organs of the embryo [3].
  • These observations indicate that the sd gene encodes a transcription factor that functions in the regulation of cell-specific gene expression during Drosophila development, particularly in the differentiation of the nervous system [3].

Biological context of sd

  • Further, targeted expression of wg at the D/V boundary in the wing disc was able to partially rescue the sd mutant phenotype [4].
  • The reporter gene is later expressed in specific regions of the imaginal discs, including regions of the wing disc destined to become structures defective in viable sd mutants [3].
  • Here we show that Vg contains two distinct transcriptional activation domains, suggesting that the function of Vg is to mediate transcriptional activation by Sd [5].

Anatomical context of sd

  • Another functional role for sd is the establishment of sensory organ precursors (SOP) of the peripheral nervous system at the wing margin [4].

Other interactions of sd

  • We show that vg and scalloped (sd), the only known VG transcriptional coactivator, are coexpressed during IFM development [6].
  • This infers that sd could function in either the maintenance or induction of wg at the D/V border [4].


  1. Bioinformatic and enzymatic characterization of the MAPEG superfamily. Bresell, A., Weinander, R., Lundqvist, G., Raza, H., Shimoji, M., Sun, T.H., Balk, L., Wiklund, R., Eriksson, J., Jansson, C., Persson, B., Jakobsson, P.J., Morgenstern, R. FEBS J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular interactions between Vestigial and Scalloped promote wing formation in Drosophila. Simmonds, A.J., Liu, X., Soanes, K.H., Krause, H.M., Irvine, K.D., Bell, J.B. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The scalloped gene encodes a novel, evolutionarily conserved transcription factor required for sensory organ differentiation in Drosophila. Campbell, S., Inamdar, M., Rodrigues, V., Raghavan, V., Palazzolo, M., Chovnick, A. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Further developmental roles of the Vestigial/Scalloped transcription complex during wing development in Drosophila melanogaster. Srivastava, A., Bell, J.B. Mech. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. TONDU (TDU), a novel human protein related to the product of vestigial (vg) gene of Drosophila melanogaster interacts with vertebrate TEF factors and substitutes for Vg function in wing formation. Vaudin, P., Delanoue, R., Davidson, I., Silber, J., Zider, A. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Control of apterous by vestigial drives indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila. Bernard, F., Lalouette, A., Gullaud, M., Jeantet, A.Y., Cossard, R., Zider, A., Ferveur, J.F., Silber, J. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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