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Gene Review

VP1  -  structural protein VP1

Rotavirus C

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Disease relevance of VP1

  • The VP1 protein is the most highly conserved between the rotaviruses of groups A and C. The genome segment 2 encodes the VP2 protein [1].
  • To further define the role of VP1 and VP2 in the synthesis of dsRNA from viral mRNA, recombinant baculoviruses containing gene 1 (rBVg1) and gene 2 (rBVg2) of SA11 rotavirus were generated and used to express recombinant VP1 (rVP1) and rVP2, respectively [2].
  • The amino terminus of the innermost capsid protein VP2 possesses a nonspecific single-stranded RNA and dsRNA binding activity, and the amino terminus is also essential for the incorporation of the polymerase enzyme VP1 and guanylyltransferase VP3 into the core of the virion [3].
  • Based on the dendrogram established from the sequence alignment around the polymerase module region, and sequence identity within the alignment, P1 of plant-infecting RDV was evolutionarily compared with VP1, lambda 3, and VP1 of three other animal-infecting members of the family, rota-, reo-, and bluetongue viruses [4].
  • Sequence analysis of VP1 and VP7 genes suggests occurrence of a reassortant of G2 rotavirus responsible for an epidemic of gastroenteritis [5].

High impact information on VP1

  • The inner layer, made of VP2, encloses the genomic RNA and two minor proteins, VP1 and VP3, with which it forms the viral core [6].
  • Despite their replication-defective phenotype, mutant RNAs with complementary 5' and 3' termini were shown to competitively interfere with the replication of wild-type mRNA and to bind the viral RNA polymerase VP1 as efficiently as wild-type RNA [7].
  • Rotavirus cores contain the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, RNA polymerase VP1, and guanylyltransferase VP3 and are enclosed within a lattice formed by the RNA-binding protein VP2 [2].
  • Photoaffinity labeling of rotavirus VP1 with 8-azido-ATP: identification of the viral RNA polymerase [8].
  • Partial nucleotide sequences of the VP1 gene were analysed and appeared to be similar among the major G2 strains from the same epidemic (identity > 98%), whereas the identity of the VP1 genes of the major G2 strains of the 1993 epidemic to those of previous seasons was only about 84% [5].

Biological context of VP1


Other interactions of VP1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VP1

  • To determine which of the core proteins, VP1, VP2, or VP3, recognizes the template mRNA during RNA replication, SA11 open cores were incubated with 32P-labeled RNA probes of viral and nonviral origin and the reaction mixtures were analyzed for the formation of RNA-protein complexes by gel mobility shift assay [14].
  • DSP-crosslinking of infected cell lysates and immunoprecipitation also revealed that NS35 interacts with the putative viral RNA polymerase VP1 [15].


  1. Sequences of the four larger proteins of a porcine group C rotavirus and comparison with the equivalent group A rotavirus proteins. Bremont, M., Juste-Lesage, P., Chabanne-Vautherot, D., Charpilienne, A., Cohen, J. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Rotavirus RNA polymerase requires the core shell protein to synthesize the double-stranded RNA genome. Patton, J.T., Jones, M.T., Kalbach, A.N., He, Y.W., Xiaobo, J. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Three-dimensional structural analysis of recombinant rotavirus-like particles with intact and amino-terminal-deleted VP2: implications for the architecture of the VP2 capsid layer. Lawton, J.A., Zeng, C.Q., Mukherjee, S.K., Cohen, J., Estes, M.K., Prasad, B.V. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular analysis of rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment S1: interviral homology of the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase between plant- and animal-infecting reoviruses. Suzuki, N., Tanimura, M., Watanabe, Y., Kusano, T., Kitagawa, Y., Suda, N., Kudo, H., Uyeda, I., Shikata, E. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequence analysis of VP1 and VP7 genes suggests occurrence of a reassortant of G2 rotavirus responsible for an epidemic of gastroenteritis. Zao, C.L., Yu, W.N., Kao, C.L., Taniguchi, K., Lee, C.Y., Lee, C.N. J. Gen. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP5 interacts with major core protein VP2. Berois, M., Sapin, C., Erk, I., Poncet, D., Cohen, J. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Rotavirus RNA replication requires a single-stranded 3' end for efficient minus-strand synthesis. Chen, D., Patton, J.T. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Photoaffinity labeling of rotavirus VP1 with 8-azido-ATP: identification of the viral RNA polymerase. Valenzuela, S., Pizarro, J., Sandino, A.M., Vásquez, M., Fernández, J., Hernández, O., Patton, J., Spencer, E. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Nucleotide sequence of gene segment 1 of a porcine rotavirus strain. Fukuhara, N., Nishikawa, K., Gorziglia, M., Kapikian, A.Z. Virology (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak in Albania. Divizia, M., Gabrieli, R., Donia, D., Macaluso, A., Bosch, A., Guix, S., Sánchez, G., Villena, C., Pintó, R.M., Palombi, L., Buonuomo, E., Cenko, F., Leno, L., Bebeci, D., Bino, S. Water Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of VP1, VP2 and VP3 gene segments of a human rotavirus closely related to porcine strains. Varghese, V., Ghosh, S., Das, S., Bhattacharya, S.K., Krishnan, T., Karmakar, P., Kobayashi, N., Naik, T.N. Virus Genes (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of a neutralization-specific antigen of a calf rotavirus. Killen, H.M., Dimmock, N.J. J. Gen. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Complete nucleotide sequence of a group A avian rotavirus genome and a comparison with its counterparts of mammalian rotaviruses. Ito, H., Sugiyama, M., Masubuchi, K., Mori, Y., Minamoto, N. Virus Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Rotavirus VP1 alone specifically binds to the 3' end of viral mRNA, but the interaction is not sufficient to initiate minus-strand synthesis. Patton, J.T. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. The rotavirus RNA-binding protein NS35 (NSP2) forms 10S multimers and interacts with the viral RNA polymerase. Kattoura, M.D., Chen, X., Patton, J.T. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
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