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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

int  -  similar to GenBank Accession Number AAR05703

Escherichia coli

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Disease relevance of int


High impact information on int

  • This region also contains an open reading frame homologous to one present in Tn1696 (member of the Tn21 family) which encodes a site-specific integrase [5].
  • To facilitate the study of the attB site, the int and xis genes, expressed from an inducible promoter, and attP from pSAM2 were cloned on plasmids in Escherichia coil [6].
  • In this study, we show that expression of the natural int gene may also be modulated by rare arginine codon usage, and we explore this mechanism [1].
  • Both sib+ and sib- deletions were sequenced, and it was concluded from this and other work that a dyad symmetry present in the b region, 270 base-pairs from int, was necessary for retroregulation [2].
  • The lambda int gene product, integrase, recombines phage and bacterial DNA at a specific site during the integration step of lysogeny [2].

Biological context of int

  • Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an IS1 element between the int gene and the afa-3 gene cluster [7].
  • Plasmids containing the site-specific att/int functions of pMLP1 can be used to integrate genes into the chromosome [3].
  • DNAs homologous to bacteriophage int and attP were located upstream of gtrA(IV), suggesting that this region of the NCTC 8296 genome may have originated from a bacteriophage; however, a serotype-converting phage could not be induced from this strain nor from other strains used in this study [8].

Other interactions of int

  • The authors report here that phage Phi42 encodes a restriction-modification (R-M) system, termed Sau42I, adjacent to and in the same orientation to the phage integrase gene int [9].


  1. Modulation of lambda integrase synthesis by rare arginine tRNA. Zahn, K., Landy, A. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Deletion analysis of the retroregulatory site for the lambda int gene. Court, D., Huang, T.F., Oppenheim, A.B. J. Mol. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Development of the Micromonospora carbonacea var. africana ATCC 39149 bacteriophage pMLP1 integrase for site-specific integration in Micromonospora spp. Alexander, D.C., Devlin, D.J., Hewitt, D.D., Horan, A.C., Hosted, T.J. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Phage TP901-1 site-specific integrase functions in human cells. Stoll, S.M., Ginsburg, D.S., Calos, M.P. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Transposition of an antibiotic resistance element in mycobacteria. Martin, C., Timm, J., Rauzier, J., Gomez-Lus, R., Davies, J., Gicquel, B. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure of the chromosomal insertion site for pSAM2: functional analysis in Escherichia coli. Raynal, A., Tuphile, K., Gerbaud, C., Luther, T., Guérineau, M., Pernodet, J.L. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequence of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding afa-3 gene cluster and its translocation via flanking IS1 insertion sequences. Garcia, M.I., Labigne, A., Le Bouguenec, C. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Type IV O antigen modification genes in the genome of Shigella flexneri NCTC 8296. Adams, M.M., Allison, G.E., Verma, N.K. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Sau42I, a BcgI-like restriction-modification system encoded by the Staphylococcus aureus quadruple-converting phage Phi42. Dempsey, R.M., Carroll, D., Kong, H., Higgins, L., Keane, C.T., Coleman, D.C. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
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