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Gene Review

PTGS2  -  prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2...

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: CEF147, PGHS2, PHSII
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Disease relevance of PTGS2


High impact information on PTGS2

  • Animals with loss of cyclooxygenase-2 function have reduced reparative bone formation, but the role of prostaglandins during endochondral bone formation is not defined [2].
  • In addition, there was upregulation of mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) [3].
  • Furthermore, using fluorescent double-labeling for COX-2 and SP, an increase in the number of small COX-2-containing neurons in contact with SP-containing elements was observed ipsilaterally (1.4-1.6-fold compared with the contralateral side) in lamina II [4].
  • Using electron microscopy, two types of SP-containing axon terminals were found to form synapses with COX-2-containing neurons in lamina II [4].
  • Fluorescence triple-labeling of COX-2, SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) confirmed that the majority of these SP-containing elements coexisted with CGRP, indicating that these elements originated from primary afferent neurons [4].

Associations of PTGS2 with chemical compounds

  • These results indicate that the number of COX-2-containing neurons increases concomitantly with an increase in the number of contacts of these neurons with SP-containing primary afferent fibers and suggest that this phenomenon is associated with PG production and the persistence of inflammatory pain [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTGS2

  • Immunohistochemistry using antibodies for COX-1 and COX-2 was used to localize protein expression of each isoform in a subset of tumor (n = 5) and normal samples (n = 6) [5].
  • Quantitative real-time PCR with Sybr Green was used to quantify the mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2, using 18S expression as an internal control for COX normalization [5].


  1. Expression of a mitogen-responsive gene encoding prostaglandin synthase is regulated by mRNA splicing. Xie, W.L., Chipman, J.G., Robertson, D.L., Erikson, R.L., Simmons, D.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. PGE2 inhibits chondrocyte differentiation through PKA and PKC signaling. Li, T.F., Zuscik, M.J., Ionescu, A.M., Zhang, X., Rosier, R.N., Schwarz, E.M., Drissi, H., O'Keefe, R.J. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Infectious bursal disease virus infection induces macrophage activation via p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways. Khatri, M., Sharma, J.M. Virus Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Cyclo-oxygenase-2-immunoreactive neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn in a chicken acute inflammation model. Yamada, S., Kawate, T., Sakamoto, H., Aoki, K., Hamada, Y., Atsumi, S. Anatomical science international / Japanese Association of Anatomists. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA and protein expression in the Gallus domesticus model of ovarian cancer. Urick, M.E., Johnson, P.A. Gynecol. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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