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Gene Review

smad6  -  SMAD family member 6

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: MADH6, Xsmad6
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High impact information on Smad6

  • Other cell-autonomous inhibitors of the BMP pathway are more widely expressed, such as the inhibitory Smads, Smad6 and Smad7 [1].
  • Herein, we examined whether Smurf1 negatively regulates BMP signaling together with the I-Smads Smad6/7 [2].
  • Blocking BMP signaling with the inhibitory Smad, Smad6, results in dorsalized embryos or secondary axis induction, only when activated up to early gastrula stages [3].
  • Partial loss of Xvex-1 activity was able to improve the efficiency of secondary axis induction by the dominant negative BMP receptor or Smad6 [4].
  • Smad6 functions as an intracellular antagonist of some TGF-beta family members during Xenopus embryogenesis [5].

Anatomical context of Smad6

  • Overexpression of Smad6 in Xenopus embryos phenocopies the effect of blocking BMP-4 signalling, leading to dorsalization of mesoderm and neuralization of ectoderm [5].

Other interactions of Smad6

  • On the other hand, xXBP1 also binds to the inhibitory Smads, Smad6 and Smad7, that can act as transcriptional co-repressors [6].
  • Smurf1 and Smad6 cooperatively induced secondary axes in Xenopus embryos [2].


  1. Cell fate specification and competence by Coco, a maternal BMP, TGFbeta and Wnt inhibitor. Bell, E., Muñoz-Sanjuán, I., Altmann, C.R., Vonica, A., Brivanlou, A.H. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Cooperative inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signaling by Smurf1 and inhibitory Smads. Murakami, G., Watabe, T., Takaoka, K., Miyazono, K., Imamura, T. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Temporal analysis of the early BMP functions identifies distinct anti-organizer and mesoderm patterning phases. Marom, K., Levy, V., Pillemer, G., Fainsod, A. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The Xvex-1 antimorph reveals the temporal competence for organizer formation and an early role for ventral homeobox genes. Shapira, E., Marom1, K., Levy, V., Yelin, R., Fainsod, A. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Smad6 functions as an intracellular antagonist of some TGF-beta family members during Xenopus embryogenesis. Nakayama, T., Gardner, H., Berg, L.K., Christian, J.L. Genes Cells (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. XBP1 forms a regulatory loop with BMP-4 and suppresses mesodermal and neural differentiation in Xenopus embryos. Cao, Y., Knöchel, S., Oswald, F., Donow, C., Zhao, H., Knöchel, W. Mech. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
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