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Gene Review

jun  -  jun proto-oncogene

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: AP-1, c-Jun
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High impact information on c-Jun

  • In addition, loss of PKC delta function inhibited the translocation of Dishevelled and the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by Frizzled [1].
  • DN-BR-induced dorsalization of the embryo, revealed by the formation of a secondary body axis or dorsalization of the ventral mesoderm explant analyzed by histological and molecular criteria, was significantly reversed by coinjection of [Val12]Ha-Ras, c-Raf, or c-Jun mRNA [2].
  • These SB 203580-sensitive kinases correspond to two isoforms of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and three isoforms of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) [3].
  • The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that play critical roles in stress responses and apoptosis [4].
  • Mesoderm induction by heterodimeric AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos) and its involvement in mesoderm formation through the embryonic fibroblast growth factor/Xbra autocatalytic loop during the early development of Xenopus embryos [5].

Biological context of c-Jun

  • These findings suggest that MAP kinase may play a role in the down-regulation of c-Jun or in the cycle of transcriptional initiation and elongation [6].
  • Phosphorylation of serine 243 markedly decreases the binding of c-Jun to oligonucleotides containing the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate response element [6].
  • The heterodimeric c-Jun/c-Fos, an activator protein-1 (AP-1) has been implicated in mesoderm induction (Dong et al., 1996; Kim et al., 1998) whereas the homodimer of c-Jun was reported to be involved in neural inhibition during the early development of Xenopus embryos [7].

Associations of c-Jun with chemical compounds

  • LPA and alkenyl-GP both stimulated the activity of the mitogen-actived protein kinases extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, whereas cyclic-PA did not [8].
  • We examined the role of Mos, Mek, PI-3 kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in progesterone stimulation of GVBD [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of c-Jun

  • Three-dimensional reconstructions using confocal microscopy of vibratome slices immunostained for the detection of c-Jun-like protein accumulated in the cytoplasm of apoptotic cells showed numerous cells at various degrees of degeneration [10].


  1. PKC delta is essential for Dishevelled function in a noncanonical Wnt pathway that regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements. Kinoshita, N., Iioka, H., Miyakoshi, A., Ueno, N. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Involvement of Ras/Raf/AP-1 in BMP-4 signaling during Xenopus embryonic development. Xu, R.H., Dong, Z., Maeno, M., Kim, J., Suzuki, A., Ueno, N., Sredni, D., Colburn, N.H., Kung, H.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of the circadian oscillator in Xenopus retinal photoreceptors by protein kinases sensitive to the stress-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SB 203580. Hasegawa, M., Cahill, G.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in Xenopus laevis eggs and embryos. A possible non-genomic role for the JNK signaling pathway. Bagowski, C.P., Xiong, W., Ferrell, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Mesoderm induction by heterodimeric AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos) and its involvement in mesoderm formation through the embryonic fibroblast growth factor/Xbra autocatalytic loop during the early development of Xenopus embryos. Kim, J., Lin, J.J., Xu, R.H., Kung, H.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Inhibition of c-Jun DNA binding by mitogen-activated protein kinase. Chou, S.Y., Baichwal, V., Ferrell, J.E. Mol. Biol. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Transcriptional regulation of Zic3 by heterodimeric AP-1(c-Jun/c-Fos) during Xenopus development. Lee, S.Y., Lee, H.S., Moon, J.S., Kim, J.I., Park, J.B., Lee, J.Y., Park, M.J., Kim, J. Exp. Mol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Naturally occurring analogs of lysophosphatidic acid elicit different cellular responses through selective activation of multiple receptor subtypes. Fischer, D.J., Liliom, K., Guo, Z., Nusser, N., Virág, T., Murakami-Murofushi, K., Kobayashi, S., Erickson, J.R., Sun, G., Miller, D.D., Tigyi, G. Mol. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Contribution of JNK, Mek, Mos and PI-3K signaling to GVBD in Xenopus oocytes. Mood, K., Bong, Y.S., Lee, H.S., Ishimura, A., Daar, I.O. Cell. Signal. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Programmed cell death in Xenopus laevis spinal cord, tail and other tissues, prior to, and during, metamorphosis. Estabel, J., Mercer, A., König, N., Exbrayat, J.M. Life Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
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