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Gene Review

msx1-b  -  msh homeobox 1

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: Xhox-7.1, Xmsx-1, hox-7, hox7, msx-1, ...
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High impact information on MSX1

  • In addition, we have analyzed the role that msx1 plays on neural crest specification [1].
  • Interestingly, by reaching different levels of Bmp activity in animal cap ectoderm, we show that a specific concentration of Bmp induces msx1 expression to a level similar to that required to induce neural crest [1].
  • We also found that cell proliferation activity, cell survival and expression of Fgf8, Fgf10 and Msx1 in the blastema were affected by denervation, suggesting that these events specific for blastema outgrowth are controlled by the nerve supply [2].
  • While both of these factors prevent the activation of genes specific to the nascent central nervous system, Msx1 inhibits anterior markers, including Otx2 and cement gland-specific genes [3].
  • Msx1 induces Pax3 and ZicR1 cell autonomously, in turn, Pax3 combined with ZicR1 activates Slug in a WNT-dependent manner [4].

Biological context of MSX1

  • Disruption of Msx1 and Msx2 RNA splicing with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides shows that both factors are also required for expression of the neural crest gene Slug [5].

Other interactions of MSX1


  1. Regulation of Msx genes by a Bmp gradient is essential for neural crest specification. Tribulo, C., Aybar, M.J., Nguyen, V.H., Mullins, M.C., Mayor, R. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Nerve-dependent and -independent events in blastema formation during Xenopus froglet limb regeneration. Suzuki, M., Satoh, A., Ide, H., Tamura, K. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibitory patterning of the anterior neural plate in Xenopus by homeodomain factors Dlx3 and Msx1. Feledy, J.A., Beanan, M.J., Sandoval, J.J., Goodrich, J.S., Lim, J.H., Matsuo-Takasaki, M., Sato, S.M., Sargent, T.D. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Msx1 and Pax3 cooperate to mediate FGF8 and WNT signals during Xenopus neural crest induction. Monsoro-Burq, A.H., Wang, E., Harland, R. Dev. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Msx1 and Msx2 have shared essential functions in neural crest but may be dispensable in epidermis and axis formation in Xenopus. Khadka, D., Luo, T., Sargent, T.D. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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