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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

DAD1P1  -  defender against cell death 1 pseudogene 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DAD-R, DAD1L, DADR
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Disease relevance of DAD-R

  • In addition, our results also imply differences in expression regulation of DAD-R between seminomas and nonseminomas [1].
  • A low level of DAD-R expression is also observed in normal testicular parenchyma and in parenchyma containing the precursor cells of this cancer, i.e., carcinoma in situ [1].

High impact information on DAD-R

  • Whereas EKI1 maps close to the telomeric region of the SROA, DAD-R is the first gene at the centromeric region within the 12p amplicon [1].
  • Therefore, elevated DAD-R expression in seminomas and nonseminomas correlates with invasive growth and a reduced level of apoptosis associated with an earlier clinical presentation [1].
  • DAD-R is also highly expressed in nonseminomas of various histologies and derived cell lines, both lacking such amplification [1].
  • A novel human processed gene, DAD-R, maps to 12p12 and is expressed in several organs [2].
  • The genomic sequence of this novel processed gene, DAD-R, lacked introns and was flanked by 8 bp terminal repeats [2].

Biological context of DAD-R

  • In contrast, seminomas lacking a restricted 12p amplification, showing significantly lower levels of DAD-R with pronounced apoptosis, manifest clinically in the fourth decade of life [1].
  • DAD-R has several possible initiation codons, one of them producing an open reading frame comprising 75% of the DAD-1 gene [2].
  • A search for expressed sequences within the contig have so far revealed one CpG island, seven anonymous ESTs and three previously characterised genes, DAD-R, KRAG and HT21, all of which were found not to be directly disrupted by the translocation [3].
  • Southern hybridization suggests that dad-1-related sequences are present as a small gene family in the citrus genome [4].

Anatomical context of DAD-R

  • We determined the chromosomal localization of DAD-R as 12p11.2-12p12.1, an area linked to familial synpolydactyly and frequently amplified in a variety of cancers, including those of testis, ovaries, pancreas and lungs [2].


  1. Coamplification of DAD-R, SOX5, and EKI1 in human testicular seminomas, with specific overexpression of DAD-R, correlates with reduced levels of apoptosis and earlier clinical manifestation. Zafarana, G., Gillis, A.J., van Gurp, R.J., Olsson, P.G., Elstrodt, F., Stoop, H., Millán, J.L., Oosterhuis, J.W., Looijenga, L.H. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel human processed gene, DAD-R, maps to 12p12 and is expressed in several organs. Kuittinen, T., Eggert, A., Lindholm, P., Horelli-Kuitunen, N., Palotie, A., Maris, J.M., Saarma, M. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Physical map of a 1.5 mb region on 12p11.2 harbouring a synpolydactyly associated chromosomal breakpoint. Debeer, P., Schoenmakers, E.F., Thoelen, R., Holvoet, M., Kuittinen, T., Fabry, G., Fryns, J.P., Goodman, F.R., Van de Ven, W.J. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular cloning of a homologue of dad-1 gene in citrus: distinctive expression during fruit development. Moriguchi, T., Komatsu, A., Kita, M., Akimitsu, K., Endo-Inagaki, T., Omura, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
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